Bulletin Géodésique (1946-1975)

, Volume 99, Issue 1, pp 55–63

Computation of geodetic direct and indirect problems by computers accumulating increments from geodetic line elements

  • L. A. Kivioja


By choosing sufficiently small elements of the length of the geodetic line, or of the latitude or longitude difference, the other two can be computed at each element and the results can be accumulated to solve the problem with more than twenty significant number accuracy if desired. Ten to twelve number accuracy was computed in the examples of this paper. The geodetic line elements are kept in correct azimuth by Clairaut’s equation for the geodetic line. The computers can do millions of necessary computations very economically in a few seconds. All other published methods solving the direct or indirect problem can be reliably checked against results obtained by this method. The run of geodetic lines around the back side of the Ellipsoid is outlined.


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  1. [1]
    Jordan, Eggert, Kneissl: “Handbuch der Vermessungskunde, Band IV, 2, Metzler, Stuttgart, 1959.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    H. Moritz: “The Geodetic Reference System, 1967”,Algemeine Vermessungs-Nachrichten, Heft 1, pp. 2–7, Karlsruhe, 1968.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    E.M. Sodano: “General Non-Iterative Solution of the Inverse and Direct Geodetic Problems”,Bulletin Géodésique, No. 75, pp. 80–82, Paris, 1965.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Bureau Central de L’Association Internationale de Géodésie 1971

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. A. Kivioja
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Civil EngineeringPurdue UniversityLafayetteU.S.A.

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