Bulletin Géodésique

, Volume 54, Issue 1, pp 37–43 | Cite as

Height-controlled three-dimensional adjustment of horizontal networks

  • T. Vincenty


The principles of three-dimensional geodesy are used in the adjustment of horizontal networks with heights and astronomic coordinates held fixed. The proposed method is simpler and faster than any conventional method, as it uses measurements on the terrain without any reductions to a computational surface. There are no restrictions on the lengths of the lines.


Azimuth Observation Equation National Geodetic Survey Horizontal Network Geodetic Height 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. B.R. BOWRING and T. VINCENTY, 1979: Use of auxiliary ellipsoids in height-controlled spatial adjustments, NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NGS 23.Google Scholar
  2. W.A. HEISKANEN and H. MORITZ, 1967:Physical Geodesy, Freeman and Co.Google Scholar
  3. M.M. MITCHELL, 1963: Fundamentals of spatial coordinates in terrestrial geodesy. M.S. thesis, The Ohio State University, Columbus.Google Scholar
  4. R.H. RAPP, 1975: Geometric Geodesy, Vol. II. The Ohio State University, Columbus.Google Scholar
  5. T. VINCENTY and B.R. BOWRING, 1978: Application of three-dimensional geodesy to adjustments of horizontal networks. NOAA Technical Memorandum NOS NGS-13.Google Scholar
  6. H. WOLF, 1963: Die Grundgleichungen der dreidimensionalen Geodäsie in elementarer Darstellung.Zeitschr. f. Vermess., Heft 6, 225–233.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Bureau Central de L’Association Internationale de Géodésie 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Vincenty
    • 1
  1. 1.National Geodetic Survey, National Ocean SurveyNOAARockvilleU.S.A.

Personalised recommendations