The journal of mental health administration

, Volume 22, Issue 2, pp 135–146

The efficacy of a consumer case management team: 2-year outcomes of a randomized trial

  • Phyllis Solomon
  • Jeffrey Draine
Article

Abstract

This article reports the results of a randomized trial of a team of case managers who are mental health consumers compared to a team of nonconsumers. Using a repeated measures MANOVA design, consumer case managers were found to be as effective as a team of nonconsumer case managers in maintaining the stability of severely mentally disabled clients served over a 2-year period. Implications for the employment of consumers in mental health services and the vocational capacity of persons with mental illness are discussed.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Rapp CA, Chamberlain R: Case management services for the chronically mentally ill.Social Work 1985; 30:417–422.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Rothman J: A model of case management: toward empirically based practice.Social Work 1991; 36:520–528.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Solomon P: The efficacy of case management services for severely mentally disabled clients.Community Mental Health Journal 1992; 28:163–180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chamberlain R, Rapp CA: A decade of case management: A methodological review of outcome research.Community Mental Health Journal 1985; 27:171–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Rubin J: Is case management effective for people with serious mental illness? A research review.Health and Social Work 1992; 17:138–150.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hodge M, Draine J: Development of support through case management services. In: Flexer R, Solomon P (Eds.):Psychiatric Rehabilitation in Practice. Boston: Andover Medical Publishers, 1993, pp. 155–169.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Modrcin M, Rapp C, Poertner J: The evaluation of case management services with the chronically mentally ill.Evaluation and Program Planning 1988; 11:307–314.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kaufmann CL, Ward-Colasante C, Farmer J: Development and evaluation of drop-in centers operated by mental health consumers.Hospital and Community Psychiatry 1993; 44:675–678.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mowbray CY, Chamberlain P, Jennings M, et al.: Consumer-run mental health services: Results from five demonstration projects.Community Mental Health Journal 1988; 24:151–156.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Sherman PS, Porter R: Mental health consumers as case management aides.Hospital and Community Psychiatry 1991; 42:494–498.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Attkisson C, Cook J, Karno M, et al.: Clinical services research.Schizophrenia Bulletin 1992; 18:561–626.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Nikkel RE, Smith G, Edwards DA: Consumer operated case management project.Hospital and Community Psychiatry 1992; 43:577–579.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Harding CM, Zubin J, Strauss, JS: Chronicity in schizophrenia: Fact, partial fact, or artifact?Hospital and Community Psychiatry 1987; 38:477.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Drake RE, Sederer LI: The adverse effects of intensive treatment of chronic schizophrenia.Comprehensive Psychiatry 1986; 27:313–326.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Neale MS, Rosenheck RA: Therapeutic Alliance and Outcome: Case Manager-Client Relationships in Intensive Psychiatric Community Care. Poster presentation, 44th Institute on Hospital and Community Psychiatry, Toronto, October 1992.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wasylenski DA, Goering PN, Lemire D, et al.: The Hostel Outreach Program: Assertive Case Management for the Homeless Mentally Ill. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychiatric Association, New Orleans, May 1991.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bond GR, Miller LD, Krumweid R, et al.: Assertive case management in three CMHC's: A controlled study.Hospital and Community Psychiatry 1988; 39:411–418.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hoult J, Reynolds I, Charbonneau-Powis M, et al.: Psychiatric hospital versus community treatment: The results of a randomized trial.Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry 1983; 17:160–167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Test MA, Knoedler W, Allness D: The long-term treatment of young schizophrenics in a community support program. In: Stein L, Test MA (Eds.):The Training in Community Living Model: A Decade of Experience. New Directions for Mental Health Services, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1985, pp. 17–27.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Stein L, Test MA: Alternative to mental hospital treatment. I: conceptual model treatment program and clinical evaluation.Archives of General Psychiatry 1980; 37:392–397.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Witheridge T, Dincin J: The bridge: An assertive outreach program in an urban setting. In: Stein L, Test MA (Eds.):The Training in Community Living Model: A Decade of Experience. New Directions for Mental Health Services 26. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1985, pp. 65–76.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Clark RE, Fox TS: A framework for evaluating the economic impact of case management.Hospital and Community Psychiatry 1993; 44:469–473.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lehman AG, Herron JD, Schwarz RP, et al.: Rehabilitation for adults with severe mental illness and substance use disorders: A clinical trial.Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 1993; 181:86–90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Anthony SA, Blanch A: Research on community support services: What we have learned.Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal 1988; 12:55–81.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Harcum ER: Methodological versus empirical literature; Two views on casual acceptance of the null hypothesis.American Psychologist 1990; 45:404–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Harcum ER: Guidance from the literature for accepting a null hypothesis when its truth is expected.Journal of General Psychology 1990; 117:325–344.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Endicott J, Spitzer R, Fleiss J, et al.: The global assessment scale.Archives of General Psychiatry 1976; 33:766–771.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bond G: Controlled Studies of Transitional and Supported Employment. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Association of Psychosocial Rehabilitation Services, St. Louis, MO, May 1990.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    McLellan A, Luborsky L, Woody G, et al.: Predicting response to alcohol and drug abuse treatments.Archives of General Psychiatry 1983; 40:620–625.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    McLellan A, Luborsky L, Woody G, et al.: An improved diagnostic evaluation instrument for substance abuse patients: The Addiction Severity Index.Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 1980; 168:26–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    McLellan A, Luborsky L., Cacciola J, et al.: New data for the Addiction Severity Index.Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease 1985; 173:412–423.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    LLamas R, Pattison EM, Hurd G: Social networks: A link between psychiatric epidemiology and community mental health.International Journal of Family Therapy 1981; 3:180–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Pattison EM, Difrancisco D, Wood P, et al.: A psychosocial kinship model for family therapy.American Journal of Psychiatry 1975; 132:1246–1251.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Pattison EM, Pattison ML: Analysis of a schizophrenic psychosocial network.Schizophrenia Bulletin 1981; 7:135–142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Streicker SK, Amdur M, Dincin J: Educating patients about psychiatric medications: Failure to enhance compliance.Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal 1986; 9:15–28.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lehman A: A quality of life interview for the chronically mentally ill.Evaluation and Program Planning 1988; 11:51–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Overall J, Gorham D: The brief psychiatric rating scale.Psychological Reports 1962; 10:799–812.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Lukoff D, Lieberman RP, Nuechterlein KH: Symptom monitoring in the rehabilitation of schizophrenia patients.Schizophrenia Bulletin 1986; 12:578–602.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Tabachnick BG, Fidell LS: Using Multivariate Statistics. Second edition. New York: HarperCollins, 1989.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Wahl OF, Hunter J: Are gender effects being neglected in schizophrenia research?Schizophrenia Bulletin 1992; 18:313–318.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Solomon P.: Response to consumers as service providers: The promise and challenge.Community Mental Health Journal. In press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Association of Mental Health Administrators 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Phyllis Solomon
    • 1
  • Jeffrey Draine
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Social WorkUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphia

Personalised recommendations