Assessment of spatial resolution of pace mapping when using body surface potentials
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Using computer simulations and statistical methods, the resolution of pace mapping when used in combination with body surface potentials was systematically investigated. In an anatomical model of the human ventricular myocardium, pre-excitation sequences were initiated at 69 sites positioned along the atrioventricular (AV) ring and corresponding body surface potential maps (BSPMs) were calculated at 32 leads placed on the anterior torso. For each time after the onset of pre-excitation (every 4ms to 40ms) and each root-mean-square (RMS) noise level (5, 10, 20 and 50μV), BSPMs were cross-correlated and the spatial resolution defined as the largest pacing site separation at which the differences in correlation coefficients were not statistically significant (level p≥0.05). The findings indicate that when random RMS noise of 5μV was added to the simulated BSPMs, average spatial resolution over all 69 sites was at 20ms after the onset of pre-excitation within 3.5±0.9mm. The results provide theoretical evidence that statistical analysis of BSPMs obtained during pace mapping can offer improved means for subcentimetre identification of accessory pathways located along the AV ring.
KeywordsBody surface potential mapping Spatial resolution Pace mapping Pre-excitation syndrome Computer model
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