Visualisation of retinal blood flow by laser speckle flowgraphy

  • H. Fujii
Physiological Measurement


A new method is demonstrated to visualise the microcirculation map of the human retina using a dynamic laser speckle effect. The retina is illuminated with a diode laser spot through a retinal camera, and its speckle image is detected by an area sensor. The output signal from the sensor is digitised, and the data for more than a hundred scannings of the speckle image are stored in a mass image memory. The difference between a pair of successive image data was calculated and integrated for each pixel. The results were displayed in colour graphics showing the spatial distribution of the blood flow in the retina.


Blood flow measurement Laser Ophthalmologic instrument 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aizu, Y., Ogino, K., Koyama, K., Takai, N., andAsakura, T. (1987): ‘Evaluation of retinal blood flow using time-varying laser speckle’in:Adrian, R. J. (Ed.) ‘Laser anemometry in fluid mechanics’, Vol. 3, (Ladoan, Lisbon) pp. 55–59Google Scholar
  2. Feke, G. T., andRiva, C. E. (1987): ‘Laser Doppler measurements of blood velocity in human retinal vessels’,J. Opt. Soc. AM.,68, pp. 526–531Google Scholar
  3. Fercher, A. F., andBriers, J. D. (1981): ‘Flow visualization by means of single-exposure speckle photography’,Opt. Commun.,37, pp. 326–330CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Fujii, H., Asakura, T., Nohira, K., Shintomi, Y., andOhura, T. (1985): ‘Blood flow observed by time-varying laser speckle’,Opt. Lett.,10, pp. 104–106Google Scholar
  5. Fujii, H., Nohira, K., Yamamoto, Y., Ikawa, H., andOhura, T. (1987): ‘Evaluation of blood flow by laser speckle image sensing’,Appl. Opt.,26, pp. 5321–5325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Nilsson, G. E., Tenland, T., andÖberg, P. Å. (1980): ‘A new instrument for continuous measurement of tissie blood flow by light beating spectroscopy’,IEEE Trans.,BME-27, pp. 12–19Google Scholar
  7. Okamoto, S., Shimizu, H., andOzawa, T. (1980): ‘Measurements of blood flow in the retina by differential laser Doppler method’,Jpn. J. Ophthalmol.,24, pp. 128–140Google Scholar
  8. Riva, C. E., Grunweld, J. E., andSinclair, S. H. (1981): ‘Fundus camera based retinal LDV’,Appl. Opt.,20, pp. 117–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Tsushima, K., Nakahara, A., Kashimura, H., Fukutomi, H., Ohsuga, H., andFujii, H. (1988): ‘Visualization of microcirculation by laser speckle image sensing (IV)’,J. Jpn. Soc. Laser Med.,9, pp. 511–514 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  10. Yamamoto, Y., Nohira, K., Ohura, T., andFujii, H. (1988): ‘Evaluation of the development of blood flow in skin flaps using graphic flowmeter’,J. Jpn. Soc. Laser Medicine,9, pp. 507–510 (in Japanese)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© IFMBE 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Fujii
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computer Science and ElectronicsKyushu Institute of TechnologyFukuokaJapan

Personalised recommendations