Mind & Society

, Volume 1, Issue 1, pp 95–107 | Cite as

Deduction and induction: Reasoning through mental models

Articles

Abstract

In this paper we deal with two types of reasoning: induction, and deduction First, we present a unified computational model of deductive reasoning through models, where deduction occurs in five phases: Construction, Integration, Conclusion, Falsification, and Response. Second, we make an attempt, to analyze induction through the same phases. Our aim is an explorative evaluation of the mental processes possibly shared by deductive and inductive reasoning.

Keywords

deduction induction mental models 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bara B., Bucciarelli M., Lombardo, V. (1999), Model Theory of Deduction: A unified computational approach,Cognitive Science, in press.Google Scholar
  2. Bar-Hillel, Y. and Carnap, R. (1964). An outline of a theory of semantic information, in Y. Bar-Hillel (Ed.)Language and information. (Reading, Addison-Wesley).Google Scholar
  3. Bell, V.A. & Johnson-Laird, P.N. (1998) A model theory of modal reasoning,Cognitive Science, in press.Google Scholar
  4. Braine, M. (1990) The “natural logic”, approach to reasoning, in W.F. Overton (Ed.),Reasoning, Necessity, and Logic (Hove, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates), pp. 133–157.Google Scholar
  5. Braine, M. (1998) Steps towards a mental predicate logic, in M.D.S. Braine & D.P. O'Brien (Eds.),Mental Logic (Mahwah, Erlbaum).Google Scholar
  6. Geminiani, G.C. & Bucciarelli, M. (1998) Deductive reasoning in right-brain damaged,Proceedings of the XX Conference of the Cognitive Science Society (Madison, Morton Ann Gernsbacher & Sharon J. Derry).Google Scholar
  7. Geminiani, G.C., Carassa, A., Bara, B. G., (1996) Causality by contact, in A. Garnham. & J. Oakhill (Eds.)Mental Models in Cognitive Science: Essays in Honour of Phil Johnson-Laird (Hove, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates), pp. 275–303.Google Scholar
  8. Johnson-Laird, P.N. (1983)Mental models (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
  9. Johnson-Laird, P.N., (1993)Human and machine thinking (Hillsdale, Erlbaum).Google Scholar
  10. Johnson-Laird, P.N. & Anderson, T. (1989) Common-sense inference,Mimeo (Princeton University).Google Scholar
  11. Johnson-Laird, P.N. & Byrne, R. 1991.Deduction (Hillsdale, Lawrence, Erlbaum Associates).Google Scholar
  12. Johnson-Laird, P.N., Legrenzi, P., Girotto, V., Sonino Legrenzi, M. & Caverni, J.P. (1999) Naive probability: A mental model theory of extensional reasoning.Psychological Review, in press.Google Scholar
  13. Legrenzi, P., Girotto, V. & Johnson-Laird, P.N. (1993) Focussing in reasoning and decision making.Cognition, 49, pp. 37–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Luria, A.R. (1976)Cognitive development, its cultural and social foundations, (Cambridge, Harvard Univ. Press).Google Scholar
  15. Michalsky, R.S. (1983) A theory and methodology of inductive learning, in R.S. Michalsky, J.R. Carbonell & T.M. Mitchell (Eds.),Machine learning: An artificial intelligence, approach (Los Altos, Morgan Kaufmann).Google Scholar
  16. Rips, L.J. (1994)The psychology of proof: Deductive reasoning in human thinking (Cambridge, MIT Press).Google Scholar
  17. Savary, F., Whitaker, H., Markovits, H. (1992) Counterfactual reasoning deficits in right brain damage patients,Mimeo (Department of Psychology, University of Quebec at Montreal).Google Scholar
  18. Shafir, E. & Tversky, A. (1992) Thinking through uncertainty: Nonconsequential reasoning and choice,Cognitive Psychology, 24, pp. 449–474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Tversky, A. & Kahneman, D. (1973) Availability: A heuristic for judging frequency and probability.Cognitive Psychology, 5, pp. 207–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Fondazione Rosselli, Rosenberg & Sellier 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centro di Scienza CognitivaUniversità di TorinoTorino
  2. 2.Centro di Scienza CognitivaUniversità di TorinoTorino

Personalised recommendations