Biology ofHyphantria cuneaDrury (Lepidoptera: arctiidae) in Japan. V. Preliminary life tables and mortality data in urban areas
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Studies on the population dynamics of the fall webworm,Hyphantria cunea have been carried out at three survey stations and along selected roads in the urban area of Tokyo since 1966. Twelve survivorship curves obtained during two years and 8 life tables show that the mortality rate in early developmental stages of the fall webworm is remarkably low as compared with that of other lepidopterous defoliaters and the mortality rate in later developmental stages is compensatory high. The low mortality rate in early stages is considered to be due to the protective role of the nest-web and the lack of egg and larval parasites. All but one parasitic species emerge from prepupae and pupae. Spiders living in the nest-web of the fall webworm play an important role in reducing the number of young larvae. Direct observations and caging experiments showed that relatively high mortality during later larval stages is mainly due to predation by birds (in the first generation) and wasps (in the second generation). The generation mortality in the survey stations always exceeded the level where the population is kept at the steady state, and the outbreak of this moth is considered to be continued by the immigration of adults from large trees growing in gardens on which the larvae can escape from predation pressure.
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