Advertisement

Bipolar implantable stimulator for long-term denervated-muscle experiments

  • R. G. Dennis
Technical Note

Abstract

A micropower bipolar implantable stimulator has been developed and tested for long-term (four weeks-six months) use in experiments involving the stimulation of denervated skeletal muscle. Implantable stimulators are typically operated from a single lithium battery at 3 V. After the first week of denervation, stimulation of denervated muscles of rats requires voltages in the range of 6–12 V. The stimulator described can deliver voltages up to 15 V, with variable pulsewidth, frequency and duty cycle. All stimulation parameters are set prior to implantation by selection of appropriate resistors and capacitors. Each primary failure mode for implantable stimulators is addressed. Long-term reliability rates in excess of 95% are achievable if the construction details are followed closely. Methods for battery power management, circuit component selection, electrode construction and encapsulation are described in detail. This device is not intended for use in humans.

Keywords

Implantable Stimulator Chronic stimulation Muscle stimulation Denervated muscle Muscle 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Brown, J. andSalmons, S. (1981): ‘Percutaneous control of an implantable muscle stimulator via an optical link’,J. Biomed. Eng.,3, pp. 206–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cooper, J. P. andSalmons, S. (1988): ‘A simple three-program implantable muscle stimulator with optical control’,J. Biomed. Eng.,10, pp. 467–469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Donaldson, P. E. K. (1989): ‘Encapsulating microelectronic implants in one-part silicone rubbers’,Med. Biol. Eng. Comput.,27, pp. 93–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Guyton, D. L. (1974): ‘Theory and design of capacitor electrodes for chronic stimulation’,Med. Biol. Eng. (Sept.), pp. 613–620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Horowitz, P. andHill, W. (1989): ‘The art of electronics’ (Cambridge University Press) pp. 967–968Google Scholar
  6. Jarvis, J. C. andSalmons, S. (1991): ‘A family of neuromuscular stimulators with optical transcutaneous control’,J. Med. Eng. & Tech.,15, (2), pp. 53–57Google Scholar
  7. MacPherson, P. C. D., Dennis, R. G. andFaulkner, J. A. (1997): ‘Changes in impedance and excitability of soleus muscles from rats after 4 weeks of denervation’,EASEB J.,11, p. A56Google Scholar
  8. Rosenblatt, J. D., Lin, P. J., McKee, N. H. andPlyley, M. J. (1987): ‘A simple method for concurrent stimulation of skeletal muscle in several animals’,Can. J. Sport Sci.,12, p. 20P.Google Scholar
  9. Rosenblatt, J. D., Lin, P. J., McKee, N. H. andKuzon, W. M. Jr (1989): ‘A simple method for the concurrent stimulation of skeletal muscle in several animals’,Lab. Animal Sci.,39, (4), pp. 347–348Google Scholar
  10. Salmons, S. (1966): ‘An implantable muscle stimulator’,J. Physiol.,188, pp. 13–14PGoogle Scholar
  11. Salmons, S. andJarvis, J. C. (1991): ‘Simple optical switch for implantable devices’,Med. Biol. Eng. Comput.,29, pp. 554–556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Smith, D. M. (1978): ‘Miniature stimulator for chronic animals’,Pflugers Arch.,376, pp. 93–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Williams, G. F. andHerbert, M. A. (1985): ‘Totally implantable muscle stimulator with automatic daily cycling’,Med. Biol. Eng. Comput.,23, pp. 601–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© IFMBE 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. G. Dennis
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of GerontologyUniversity of MichiganMIAnn ArborUSA

Personalised recommendations