Journal of Adult Development

, Volume 4, Issue 2, pp 71–83 | Cite as

Personal warmth and psychological health at midlife

  • Harvey Peskin
  • Constance J. Jones
  • Norman Livson


Personal warmth, arguably a strong trait in the makeup of psychological health, seems to fade in conceptual importance at midlife. In contrast, ideas of interiority and androgyny appear to gain conceptual importance at midlife. The present study sought to rebalance these foci by determining the predictive power of personal warmth for psychological health of men and women at age 50: first, by developing separate California Psychological Inventory (CPI) scales to assess personal warmth; next, by joining these warmth scales with the 20 standard CPI scales to predict psychological health. Without the personal warmth scale, the standard CPI scales do not significantly predict psychological health for men; for women, the standard scales do. For both genders, the personal warmth scales add significantly to the predictability of psychological health. The results point to an amendment of current theoretical formulations of interiority and androgyny to better understand optimal psychological development in men and women at midlife.

Key Words

Personal warmth psychological health midlife gender differences California Psychological Inventory (CPI) 


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Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harvey Peskin
    • 1
  • Constance J. Jones
    • 2
  • Norman Livson
    • 3
  1. 1.San Francisco State UniversitySan Francisco
  2. 2.California State UniversityFresno
  3. 3.California School of Professional PsychologyBerkeley/Alameda

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