Advertisement

Self-construal, facework, and conflict styles among cultures in online learning environments

  • Sharon L. Walsh
  • Ethel Gregory
  • Yvonne Lake
  • Charlotte N. Gunawardena
Departments International Review

Keywords

Cultural Group Indian Subcontinent Middle Eastern Conflict Behavior Collectivist Culture 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Chen, G.M., & Starosta, W.J. (1998).Foundations of intercultural communication. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
  2. Cross, S.E. (1997). Models of the self: Self-construals and gender.Psychological Bulletin, 122, 5–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cupach, W.R., & Metts, S. (1994).Facework. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  4. Gudykunst, W.B., Matsumoto, Y., Ting-Toomey, S., Nishida, T., Kim, K., & Heyman, S. (1996). The influence of cultural individualism-collectivism, selfconstruals, and individual values on communication styles across cultures.Human Communication Research, 22, 510–543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Gunawardena, C.N., Walsh, S.L., Reddinger, L., Gregory, E., Lake, Y., & Davies, A. (2002). Negotiating ‘face’ in a non-face-to-face learning environment. In F. Sudweeks & C. Ess (Eds.),Proceedings of the Third Conference on Cultural Attitudes Towards Technology and Communication 2002 (pp. 89–106). Murdoch, WA, Australia: School of Information Technology, Murdoch University.Google Scholar
  6. Hofstede, G. (1983). National cultures in four dimensions.International Studies of Management and Organization, 13, 46–74.Google Scholar
  7. HyperResearch version 2.5b17. (2002). Qualitative research tool. Randolf, MA: Meta Card Corp.Google Scholar
  8. Kim, M.S., Hunter, J.E., Miyahara, A., Horvath, A., Bresnahan, M., & Yoon, H. (1996). Individuals, cultural-level dimensions of individualism and collectivism: Effects on preferred conversational styles.Communication Monographs, 63, 28–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Lincoln, Y.S., & Guba, E.G. (1985).Nuturalistic inquiry. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  10. Markus, H.R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and self: Implication for cognition, emotion, and motivation.Psychological Review, 98, 224–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Matheson, K., & Zanna, M.P. (1988). The impact of computer-mediated communication on self-awareness.Computers in Human Behavior, 4, 221–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. McDonald, J., & Gibson, C.C. (1998). Interpersonal dynamics and group development in computer conferencing.The American Journal of Distance Education, 12, 7–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Miles, M.B., & Huberman, A.M. (1994).Qualitative data analysis. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  14. Oetzel, J.G. (1998). The effects of self-construal and ethnicity on self-reported conflict styles.Communication Reports, 11, 133–145.Google Scholar
  15. Oetzel, J.G., Ting-Toomey, S., Masumoto, T., Yukochi, Y., Pan, X., Takai, J., & Wilcox, R. (2001). Face and facework in conflict: A cross-cultural comparison of China, Germany, Japan, and the United States.Communication Monographs, 68, 235–258.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Oetzel, J.G., Ting-Toomey, S., Yokochi, Y., Masumoto, T., & Takai, J. (2000). A typology of facework behaviors in conflicts with best friends and relative strangers.Communication Quarterly, 4, 397–419.Google Scholar
  17. Rahim, M.A. (1992).Managing conflict in organizations. Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
  18. Sato, T., & Cameron, J.E. (1999). The relationship between collective self-esteem and self-construal in Japan and Canada.Journal of Social Psychology, 139, 426–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Ting-Toomey, S. (1988). Intercultural conflict style: A face-negotiation theory. In Y.Y. Kim and W.B. Gudykunst (Eds.),Theories in intercultural communication (pp. 213–235). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  20. Ting-Toomey, S., & Kurogi, A. (1998). Facework competence in intercultural conflict: An updated face negotiation theory.International Journla of Intercultural Relations, 22, 187–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ting-Toomey, S., Oetzel, J.G., & Yee-jung, K. (2001). Self-construal types and conflict management styles.Communication Reports, 14(2), 87–105.Google Scholar
  22. Ting-Toomey, S., Yee-jung, K.K., Shapiro, R.B., Garcia, W., Wright, T.J., & Oetzel, J.G. (2000). Ethnic/cultural identity salience and conflict styles in four US ethnic groups.International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 24, 47–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Association for Educational Communications and Technology 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sharon L. Walsh
    • 1
  • Ethel Gregory
    • 1
  • Yvonne Lake
    • 1
  • Charlotte N. Gunawardena
    • 1
  1. 1.the Organizational Learning and Instructional Technology Program at The University of New Mexico in AlbuquerqueAlbuquerqueUSA

Personalised recommendations