Isomers of rhodoxanthin in reddish brown leaves of gymnosperms and effect of daylight intensity on the contents of pigments during autumnal coloration
- 88 Downloads
The major red carotenoids in autumnal, colored leaves were analyzed in seven species and one variety that belong to two families of gymnosperms. The red carotenoids in leaves of all species and variety were rhodoxanthin, which was separated into three geometric isomers, (6Z, 6′Z)-rhodoxanthin, (6Z)-rhodoxanthin and (all E)-rhodoxanthin.
The effects of daylight intensity on the content and composition of the leaf pigments of autumnal coloration were studied with leaves ofCryptomeria japonica (evergreen) andTaxodium distichum (deciduous) grown under different grades of shade. Histological observation showed that many reddish particles of rhodoxanthin were observed inside chromoplasts on the sunny side of a leaf at the early stage of coloration and that the content of the reddish particles was decreased toward the shady side from the sunny side of a leaf. The transition from chloroplasts to chromoplasts was observed and cells at different stage of coloration independently existed in the mesophyll tissue of a leaf.
The content of rhodoxanthin became maximum when the daylight intensity was 4.1–7.4 MJ m−2 day−1 and the daily mean temp. was below 8.1 C inCryptomeria, and 3.1–8.3 MJ m−2 day−1 and 13.4 C inTaxodium.
Key wordsAutumnal coloration Chromoplast Cupressaceae Daylight intensity Isomers of Rhodoxanthin Taxodiaceae
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Campbell, S.A., A.K. Mallams, E.S. Waight, B.C.L. Weedon, M. Barbier, E. Lederer, and A. Salque. 1967. Pectenoxanthin, cynthiaxanthin and a new acetylenic carotenoid, pectenolone. Chem. Commun. 941–942.Google Scholar
- Davies, B.H. 1976. Carotenoids. In edited by T.W. Goodwin. Chemistry and Biochemistry of Plant Pigments. Vol. 2. 2ed. Academic Press, London. 38–165.Google Scholar
- Hida, M. andK. Ida. 1964. Studies on a pink carotenoid in red, autumnal leaves of Tax-odiaceae. Bot. Mag. Tokyo.77(918): 458–461. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
- Karrer, P. andE. Jucker. 1950. Carotenoids. pp. 221–225, 353. Elsevier, New York.Google Scholar
- Kawahara, K. andA. Ohta. 1976. Color name and color coordinate, pp. 14, 16, 20. Graphic Co., Tokyo. (in Japanese).Google Scholar
- Kuhn, R. andH. Brockmann. 1933. Über Rhodoxanthin. Ber. Dtsch. Chem. Ges.66: 828–834.Google Scholar
- Matsuno, T. andM. Katsuyama. 1979. Comparative biochemical studies of carotenoids in fishes. XIV. Carotenoids of Tilapia 1. Bull. Japan. Soc. Sci. Fish.,45: 1533–1538. (in Japanese).Google Scholar
- —,—, T. HIRONO, T. MAOKA AND T. Komori. 1986. The carotenoids of Tilapia nilotica. Bull. Japan. Soc. Sci. Fish.Google Scholar
- Terashima, I. andT. Saeki. 1983. Light environment within a leaf. I. Optical properties of paradermal sections ofCamellia, leaves with special reference to differences in the optical properties of palisade and spongy tissues. Plant & Cell Physiol.24(8): 1493–1501.Google Scholar
- ——, S. Sakaguchi and N. Hara. 1986. Intra-leaf and intracellular gradients in chloroplast ultrastructure of dorsiventral leaves illuminated from the adaxial or adaxial side during their development. Plant & Cell Physiol.27(6): 1023–1031.Google Scholar