Advertisement

Materials and Structures

, Volume 37, Issue 9, pp 623–643 | Cite as

Test methods for on-site corrosion rate measurement of steel reinforcement in concrete by means of the polarization resistance method

  • C. Andrade
  • C. Alonso
RILEM Technical Committees RILEM TC 154-EMC: ‘Electrochemical Techniques for Measuring Metallic Corrosion’ Recommendations

Keywords

Corrosion Rate Concrete Surface Corrosion Current Guard Ring Galvanic Current 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Symbols

B

Stern constant [V]

C

Electrical capacitance [F]

CE

Counter or auxiliary electrode

E

Electrical potential [V]

ΔE

Potential step [V]

Ecorr

Corrosion or mixed potential [V]

icorr

Instantaneous corrosion current density [μA/cm2]

Icorr

Non-uniform instantaneous corrosion current Density [μA/cm2]

Δl

Current step [A]

Ipit

Instantaneous corrosion current in a pit or localized corroding spot [μA/cm2]

Igalv

Galvanic corrosion current between corroding and cathodic zones [μA/cm2 or μA]

Icorr,lab

Icorr determined in small specimens with finite reinforcement area [μA/cm2]

Icorr,sing

Icorr determined on site only one time [μA/cm2]

Icorr,tn

Averaged Icorr obtained from integrating or averaging several Icorr measurements obtained during a period of time tn [μA/cm2]

IcorrREP

Representative-Icorr value [μA/cm2]

Lcrit

Critical length polarized in on-site measurements [cm]

Px

Penetration depth of corrosion attack at a certain time [mm]

Ppit

Maximum pit or localized penetration depth [mm]

Re

Electrical resistance [ω]

R1, R2, RB

Reference electrodes for critical length measurement hold in the auxiliary electrode of potential attentuation method

RE

Reference electrode for measurement of Ecorr

Rp

Polarization Resistance [ω or ωcm2]

Pp,true

Apparent Rp [ω or ωcm2]

Rp

Rp obtained in a reference reinforced concrete slab for calibrating portable corrosion-rate-meters [ωcm2]

S

Area of the reinforcement to be measured [m2]

Sa

Anodic or corroding area [m2]

SC

Cathodic area [m2]

S1, S2

Reference electrodes to control the confinement in the guard ring auxiliary electrode time or timelife t

ti

Initiation period in service life model [year]

tp

Propagation or corroding period in service life model [year]

Vcorr

Instantancous corrosion rate [mm/year or μm/year]

VcorrREP

Representative Vcorr value [μm/year or mm/year]

α

Pitting factor

x

Loss in reinforcement diameter after a certain tp [mm]

o

Initial nominal reinforcement diameter [mm]

t

Residual reinforcement diameter after a certain tp [mm]

σ

Electrical resistivity [ωm]

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    Andrade, C. and González, J. A., ‘Quantitative measurements of corrosion rate of reinforcing steels embedded in concrete using polarization resistance measurements’,Werkstoffe und Korrosion 29, (1978), 515–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. [2]
    Stern, M. and Geary, A. L., ‘Electrochemical Polarization: I. A. theoretical analysis of the shape of polarization curves’,Journal of Electrochemical Soc. 104 (1) (1957) 56–63.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    Stern, M. and Weisert, E.D., ‘Experimental observations on the relations between polarization resistance and corrosion rate’, Proc. American Society Testing, Materials59 (1958) 1280.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Feliú, S., González, J.A., Andrade and C. Feliú, V., ‘On-site determination of the Polarization Resistance in a reinforced concrete beam’,Corrosion (USA)43 (Sept, 1987) 1–9.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Andrade, C., ‘New electrochemical technique for the corrosion measurement in reinforced and presstressed concretes. Use of inhibitor admixtures as prevention method’, Ph.D. Thesis-Faculty of Chemistry, Complutense Univ. of Madrid, July 1973.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    Lorenz, W.J. and Mansfeld, F., ‘Determination of corrosion rates by electrochemical DC and AC methods’,Corrosion Science,21(9) (1981) 647–672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    Epelboin, I., Gabrielli, C., Keddam, M. and Takenouti, H., ‘Alternating-current impedance measurements applied to corrosion studies and corrision-rate determination’, Electrochemical Corrosion Testing, ASTM STP 727. F. Mansfeld and U. Bertocci, Eds., American Society for Testing and Materials (1981) 150–166.Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    Gabrielli, C., Keddam, M., Takenouti, H., Vu Quang Kinh and Bourelier, F., ‘The relationship between the impedance of corroding electrode and its polarization resistance determined by a linear voltage sweep technique’,Electrochimica Acta 24 (1979) 61–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    McDonald, D.D. and McKubre, M.C.H., ‘Electrochemical Impedance Techniques in corrosion science’, Electrochemical Corrosion Testing ASTM STP 727-F. Mansfeld and U. Bertocci Eds. (1981) 110–149.Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    González, J.A. and Andrade, C., ‘Effect of carbonation, chlorides an relative ambient humidity on the corrosion of galvanized rebars embeded in concrete’,British Corrosion Journal,17(1) (1982) 21–28.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    Gouda, V.K., Shater, M.A. and Mikhail, R. Sh., ‘Hardened portland blast-furnace slag cement pastes, II. The corrosion behaviour of steel reinforcement’,Cement and Concrete Research 5 (1975) 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    Glass, G.K., Page, C.L. and Short, N.R., ‘Factors affecting the corrosion rate steel in carbonated mortars’,Corrosion Science,32(12) (1991) 1283–1294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    Hardon, R.G. Lambert, P. and Page, C.L., ‘Relationship between electrochemical noise and corrosion rate of steel in salt contaminated concrete’,British Corrosion Journal,23 (4) (1988) 225–228.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    Lambert, P., Page, C.L. and Vassie, P.R.W., ‘Investigations of reinforcement corrosion. 2. Electrochemical monitoring of steel in chloride-contaminated concrete’,Materials and Structures/Matériaux et Constructions 24 (1991) 351–358.Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    Polder, R, Tondi, A. and Cigna, R., ‘Concrete resistivity and corrosion rate of reinforcement’, TNO report 93-BT-r0170, TNO Delft (1993).Google Scholar
  16. [16]
    Pollet, V. and Raharinaivo, A., ‘Assessment of damage by corrosion: Techniques for predicting the extension of rebar corrosion’, International Symposium on Bridge Engineering and Management in Asian countries, PIARC, Jakarta (Indonesia) 10–13, September (1996).Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    Raharinaivo, A.L. and Carpio, J.J., ‘The steeping down the current method: a new corrosion control for cathodic protection of steel’, NACE Conference Corrosion '92, Nashville, Paper 228, (1992) 9.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    Dhouibi-Hachani, L, Raharinaivo, A., Triki, E. and Fiaud, C., ‘Assessing the corrosion of rebars in concrete deteriorated by sulfates and carbonation’, Int. Conference on Corrosion and Corrosion Protection of steel in Concrete. Ed. R.N. Swamy, Sheffield, July (1994) 258–267.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    Berke, N.S., Shen, D.F. and Sundberg, K.M., ‘Comparison of the polarization resistance technique to the macrocell corrosion technique’, Corrosion Rates of steel in Concrete, ASTM-1065, N. Berke, V. Chacker and D. Whiting Eds. (1990)38–51.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    Hope, B.B. and Ip, A.K.C. ‘Corrosion of steel in concrete made with slag cement’,ACI Materials Journal (Nov.–Dec. 1987) 525–531.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    Hansson, C.M., ‘Comments on electrochemical measurements of the rate of corrosion of steel in concrete’,Cement & Concrete Res.,14 (1984) 574–584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    Gulikers, J., ‘Numerical simulation of corrosion rate determination by linear polarization’, Rilem PRO 18, Workshop on Measurement and interpretation of on-site corrosion rate (Mesina), C. Andrade, C. Alonso, J. Fullea, J. Polimón and J. Rodriguez Eds., Madrid, Feb. (1999).Google Scholar
  23. [23]
    Pedeferri, P., ‘Corrosion and Protection of Metallic Materials’, Librería Politécnico de Milano, Italy (1978) (only in Italian).Google Scholar
  24. [24]
    González, J.A., Molina, A., Escudero, M.L. and Andrade, C., ‘Errors in the electrochemical evaluation of very small corrosion rates. Part. I. Polarization resistance method applied to corrosion of steel in concrete’,Corrosion Science (UK)25 (1985) 917–930.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. [25]
    Glass, G.K., Page, C.L., Short, N.R. and Yu, S.W., ‘An investigation of galvanostatic transient methods used to monitor the corrosion rate of steel in concrete’,Corrosion Science 35 (5–8) (1993) 1585–1592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. [26]
    Newton, C.J. and Sykes, J.M., ‘A galvanostatic pulse technique for investigation of steel corrosion in concrete’,Corrosion Science 28 (1988) 1051–1074.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. [27]
    Pollet, V., Grimaldi, G. and Raharinaivo, A., ‘Corrosion rate of steel in carbonated concrete measured with polarization resistance method and a new transient technique’, Paper I-OR14, EUROCORR'96, Nice, France 24–27 Sept. (1996).Google Scholar
  28. [28]
    Elsener, B., Klinhoffer, O., Frolund, T., Rislund, E., Schiegg, Y. and Böhni, H., ‘Assessment of reinforcement corrosion by means of glavanostatic pulse technique’, Int. Conference on Repair of Concrete Structures, Svolvær, Norway, Edited by A. Blackvoll, May (1997) 391–400.Google Scholar
  29. [29]
    Feliú, S., González, J.A., Andrade, C. and Feliú, V., ‘The determination of the corrosion rate of steel in concrete by a non-stationary method’,Corrosion Science 26 (1986) 961–970.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. [30]
    Hladky, K., Callow, L.M. and Dawson, J., ‘Corrosion rates from impedance measurements: an introduction’,British Corrosion J.,15 (1) (1980) 20–25Google Scholar
  31. [31]
    Wenger, F., Galland, J., Lemoine, L., ‘Méthode de contrôle de la corrosion des armatures de béton en milieu marin’, International Symposium on Behaviour of offshore concrete structures, Brest, France, October (1980).Google Scholar
  32. [32]
    Andrade, C. and Castelo, V., ‘Practical measurement of the A.C. Impedance of steel bars embedded on concrete by means of a Spectrum Analyzer, Fast Fourier Transform’,British Corrosion Journal (UK)19 (1984) 93–100.Google Scholar
  33. [33]
    Sagüés, A., ‘Electrochemical impedance of corrosion macrocells on reinforcing steel in concrete’, NACECorrosion 90, Las Vegas, USA, Paper 132 (1990).Google Scholar
  34. [34]
    Sagüés, A.A., ‘Evaluation of corrosion rate by electrochemical impedance in a system with multiple polarization effects’,Corrosion 89, New Orleans (USA), paper 25, April 17–21, 1989.Google Scholar
  35. [35]
    Andrade, C., Soler L. and Nóvoa, X.R., ‘Advances in electrochemical impedance measurements in reinforced concrete’, 5th Intern. Symposium on electrochemical methods in Corrosion Research, EMCR'94, Sesimbra, Portugal, Sept, 1994.Google Scholar
  36. [36]
    Epelboin, I., Gabrielli, C., Keddam, M. and Takenouti, H., ‘Alternating-current impedance measurements applied to corrosion studies and corrosion rate determinations’, ASTM STP 727 ‘Electrochemical Corrosion Testing”, F. Mansfeld and U. Bertocci, Eds., American Society for Testing and Materials (1981) 150–166.Google Scholar
  37. [37]
    Hachani, L., Carpio, J., Fiaud, C., Raharinaivo, A. and Triki, E., ‘Steel corrosion in concretes deteriorated by chlorides and sulphates: electrochemical study using impedance spectrometry and stepping down the current method’,Cement and Concrete Research,22 (1992) 55–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. [38]
    Feliú, S., Galvan, J.C., Feliú, Jr., S., Bastidas, J.M., Simancas, J., Morcillo, M. and Almeida, E.M., ‘An electrochemical impedance study of the behaviour of some pretreatments applied to rusted steel surfaces’,Corrosion Science,35 (5–8) (1993) 1351–1358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. [39]
    Mansfeld, F., ‘Recording and analysis of AC impedance data for corrosion studies. I. Background and methods of analysis’,Corrosion (NACE)36 (5), Mayo (1981).Google Scholar
  40. [40]
    Elsener, B., Hug, A., Bürchler, D. and Böhni, H., ‘Evaluation of localized corosion of steel in concrete by galvanostatic pulse technique’, Conference on “Corrosion of Reinforcement in Concrete Construction”, C.L. Page, P.B. Bamforth and J.L. Figg Eds. SCI, Cambridge (1996) 264–272.Google Scholar
  41. [41]
    González, J.A., Andrade, C., Alonso, C. and Feliú, S., ‘Comparison of rates of general corrosion and maximum pitting penetratoon on concrete embedded steel reinforcements’,Cement & Concrete Research,25(2) (1995) 257–264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. [42]
    Andrade, C., Alonso, C. and González, J.A., ‘An initial effort to use corrosion rates measurements for estimating rebar durability’, Corrosion Rates of Steel in Concrete ASTM STP-1065, N. Berke, V. Chacker and D. Whiting Eds. (1990) 29–37.Google Scholar
  43. [43]
    Mansfeld, F., ‘The relationship between galvanic current and dissolution rates’,Corrosion (NACE)29(10) (1973) 403–405.Google Scholar
  44. [44]
    Andrade, C., Maribona, I.R., Feliú, S., González, J.A. and Feliú Jr., S., ‘The effect of macrocells between active and passive areas of steel reinforcements’,Corrosion Science 33 (2) (1992) 237–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. [45]
    Andrade, C., Merino, P., Nóvoa, X.R., Pérez, M.C., M.C. and Soler, L., ‘Passivation of reinforcing steel in concrete’,Materials Science Forum 192–194 (1995) 891–898.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. [46]
    Andrade, C., Bolzoni, F., Cabeza, M., Nóvoa, X.R. and Pérez, M.C., ‘Measurement of steel corrosion in concrete by electrochemical techniques: influence of the redox processes in oxide scales’, in ‘Electrochemical Approach to Selected Corrosion and Corrosion Control Studies, European Federation of Corrosion Pub., no. 28, P.L. Bonora and F. Deflorian Eds. The Institute of materials, London, UK, Cap. 25, (2000) 332–343.Google Scholar
  47. [47]
    Andrade, C., Keddam, M., Nóvoa, X.R., Pérez, M.C., Rangel, M.C. and Takenouti, H., ‘Elecrochemical behaviour of steel rebars in concrete: influence of environmental factors and cement chemistry’,Electrochimica Acta,46(24–25) (2001) 3905–3912.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. [48]
    Alonso, C., Andrade, C. Izquierdo, M., Nóvoa, X.R. and Pérez, M.C., ‘Effect of protective oxide scales in the macrogalvanic behaviour of concrete reinforcements’,Corrosion Science 40(8) (1998) 1379–1389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. [49]
    Feliú, S., González, J.A., Andrade, C. and Feliú, V., ‘Determining polarization resistance in reinforced concrete slabs’,Corrosion Science 29(1) (1989) 105–113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. [50]
    Seghal, A., Kho, Y.T., Osseo-Asare, K. and Pickering, H.W., ‘Comparison of corrosion rate-measuring devices for determining corrosion rate of steel in concrete systems’,Corrosion Engineering 48 (1992) 871–880.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. [51]
    Andrade, C. and Alonso, C., ‘Corrosion rate monitoring in the laboratory and on-site’,Construction and Building Materials 10(5) (1996) 315–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. [52]
    Elsener, B. and Böhni, H., ‘Galvanostatic pulse measurements. Rapid on-site corrosion monitoring’, Int. Conference on Corrosion and Corrosion Protection of steel in Concrete, Sheffield, UK, Ed. R.N. Swamy, July (1994) 236–246.Google Scholar
  53. [53]
    Mietz, J. and Isecke, B., ‘Electrochemical potential monitoring on reinforced concrete structures using anodic pulse techniques’, Conference on ‘Non-destructive Testing in Civil Engineering’, H. Bungey Ed., The British Institute of NDT,2 (1993) 567.Google Scholar
  54. [54]
    Feliú, S., González, J.A. and Andrade, C., ‘Multiple-electrode method for estimating the polarization resistance in large structures’,Journal of Applied Electrochemistry,26 (1996) 305–309.Google Scholar
  55. [55]
    Andrade, C., Sarria, J. and Alonso, C., ‘Statistical study on simultaneous monitoring of rebar corrosion rate and internal relative humidity in concrete structures exposed to the atmosphere’, Conference on Corrosion of Reinforcement in Concrete Constructio, C.L. Page, P.B., Bamforth and J.L. Figg Eds. SCI, Cambridge (1996) 233–242.Google Scholar
  56. [56]
    Tuuti, K., ‘Corrosion of steel in concrete’, Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute (CBI) No. 4-82, Stockholm (1982).Google Scholar
  57. [57]
    Andrade, C. and alonso, C., ‘Values of corrosion rate of steel in concrete in order to predict service life of concrete structures,’, ASTM STP-1194 ‘Application of accelerated corrosion tests to service life prediction of materials’, G. Cragnolino and U. Sridhan Eds. (1994) 282–295.Google Scholar
  58. [58]
    Alonso, C., Andrade, C., González, J.A., ‘Relation between concrete resistivity and corrosion rate of the reinforcements in carbonated mortar made with several cement types’,Cement and Concrete Res.,18 (1988) 687–698.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. [59]
    Andrade, C., Sarria, J. and Alonso, C., ‘Relation between climate and corrosion rate’, Workshop on Measurement and Interpretation of on-site corrosion rates, MESINA, RILEM PRO 18, C. Andrade, C. Alonso, J. Fullea, J. Polimon and J. Rodríguez, Eds., RILEM Publ., Madrid (Feb. 1999) 123–141.Google Scholar
  60. [60]
    Andrade, C., Sarria, J. and Alonso, C., ‘Relative humidity in the interior of concrete exposed to natural and artificial weathering’,Cement and Concrete Research 29 (1999) 1249–1259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. [61]
    Andrade, C. and Alonso, C., ‘On-site measurements of corrosion rate of reinforcements’,Construction and Building Materials 15 (2001) 141–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. [62]
    Andrade, C., Fullea, J. and Alonso, C., ‘The use of the graph corrosion rate-sensitivity in the measurement of the corrosion current’, Workshop on Measurement and Interpretation of On-Site Corrosion Rates, MESINA, RILEM PRO, 18, C. Andrade, C. Alonso, J. Fullea, J. Polimon and J. Rodríguez, Eds. RILEM Pub., Madrid (Feb. 1999) 157–165.Google Scholar
  63. [63]
    Andrade, C., Alonso, C. González, J.A. and Rodríguez, J., ‘Remaining service life of corroded structures’, Proceedings of IABSE Symposium on Durability of Structures, Lisbon, September 1989, 359–363.Google Scholar
  64. [64]
    Rodríguez, J., Aragoncillo, J., Andrade, C. and Izquierdo, D., ‘Manual for assessing corrosion-affected concrete structures’, CONTECVET IN309021. www.ietcc.csic.es/public_elec/Formulario_Contecvet.html.Google Scholar
  65. [65]
    Rodríguez, J., Ortega, L.M. and Casal, J.: Corrosion of reinforcing bars and service life of reinforced concrete structures: corrosion and bond deterioration’, Internation Conference on Concrete Across Borders, Odense (Denmark) Vol. 1 (1994) 215–226.Google Scholar
  66. [66]
    Rodríguez, J., Ortega, L.M., Aragoncillo, J., Izquierdo, D. and Andrade, C., ‘Structural assessment for residual life calculation of concrete structures affected by reinforcement corrosion’, Int. RILEM Workshop on Life Prediction and aging management of concrete structures, D. Naus Ed., Rilem Publ., Cannes, France (October 2000) 97–111.Google Scholar
  67. [67]
    Rodríguez, J., Ortega, L.M., Casal, J. and Díez, J.M. ‘Corrosion of reinforcement and service life of concrete structures’, in ‘Durability of Building Materials and components’, Vol. I, C. Sjöström Ed., E&FN Sponn Publ., London (1996) 117–126.Google Scholar
  68. [68]
    Rodríguez, J., Ortega, L.M., Casal, J. and Díez, J.M., ‘Assessing structural conditions of concrete structures with corroded reinforcements’, Conference on Concrete Repair, Rehabilitation and Protection, Dundee, U.K., R.K. Dhir and M.R. Jones Eds., E&FN Spon Publ., London (June 1996) 65–77.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© RILEM 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Andrade
  • C. Alonso

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations