The bulletin of mathematical biophysics

, Volume 33, Issue 1, pp 1–17 | Cite as

Chorioretinal temperature increases from solar observation

  • T. J. White
  • M. A. Mainster
  • P. W. Wilson
  • J. H. Tips


Chorioretinal temperature increases produced by solar observations are computed digitally. The spectral characteristics of solar radiation and the spectral transmittances of the atmosphere, atmospheric water vapor and ocular media are considered. Image spread is employed in all calculations. The calculations are executed for a variety of observation angles, and the effects of pupil diameter, fixed filters and optical instruments are predicted. Temperature increases are also computed for solar eclipse observations by the appropriate superposition of unobscured solar disk solutions.


Pupil Diameter Atmospheric Water Vapor Observation Angle Precipitable Water Vapor Solar Observation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Allen, R. G. and E. O. Richey. 1966. “Eclipse Burns in Humans and Laboratory Threshold Measurements in Rabbits.”USAF School of Aerospace Medicine, Report No. SAM-TR-66-45.Google Scholar
  2. Allen, R. G., W. R. Bruce, K. R. Kay, L. K. Morrison, R. A. Neish, C. A. Polaski and R. A. Richards. 1967. “Research on Ocular Effects Produced by Thermal Radiation.”Final Report, AF 41(609)-3099.Google Scholar
  3. Boettner, E. A. 1967. “Spectral Transmission of the Eye.”Final Report, AF 41(609)-2996.Google Scholar
  4. Brownell, A. S., W. H. Parr, D. K. Hysell and R. S. Dedrick. 1968. “CO2 Laser Induced Skin Lesions.”USAMRL Report No. 769 (AD 669610).Google Scholar
  5. Clarke, A. M., W. J. Geeraets and W. T. Ham. 1969. “An Equilibrium Thermal Model for Retinal Injury From Optical Sources.”Appl. Opt.,8, 1051–1054.Google Scholar
  6. Cogan, D. G. 1963. “On Viewing the Eclipse.”Arch. Ophthal.,69, 690–692.Google Scholar
  7. Derksen, W. L., T. I. Monoham and G. P. DeLhery. 1963.Temperature, Vol. 3, Part 3. New York: Reinhold, pp. 171–175.Google Scholar
  8. Dubin, M., N. Sissenwine and S. Teweles. 1962.U.S. Standard Atmosphere. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  9. Gast, P. R. 1960.Handbook of Geophysics, Chapt. 16, Section 3. New York: Macmillan, 16–16 and 16–17.Google Scholar
  10. Henriques, F. C. 1947. “Studies of Thermal Injury.”Arch Path.,43, 489–502.Google Scholar
  11. Kuwabara, T. and R. A. Gorn. 1968. “Retinal Damage by Visible Light: An Electron Microscopic Study.”Arch. Ophthal.,79, 69–78.Google Scholar
  12. List, R. J. 1958.Smithsonian Meteorological Tables. Washington: Smithsonian Institution.Google Scholar
  13. McFaul, P. A. 1969. “Visual Prognosis After Solar Retinopathy.”Brit. J. Ophthal.,53, 534–541.Google Scholar
  14. Mainster, M. A., T. J. White, J. H. Tips and P. W. Wilson. 1970a. “Retinal Temperature Increases Produced by Intense Light Sources.”J. Opt. Soc. Am.,60, 264–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. —— and R. G. Allen. 1970b. “Spectral Dependence of Retinal Damage Produced by Intense Light Sources.” —Ibid. 60, 848–855.Google Scholar
  16. —, 1970c. “Thermal Foundations of Destructive Light Adaptation.”Ann. Ophthal.,12, 44–49.Google Scholar
  17. Miller, N. D. and T. J. White. 1969. “Evaluation of Eye Hazards From Nuclear Detonations.”Final Report, AF 41(609)-C-0023.Google Scholar
  18. Noell, W. K., V. S. Walker, B. S. Kang and S. Bernson. 1966. “Retinal Damage by Light in Rats.”Invest. Ophthal.,5, 450–473.Google Scholar
  19. Peacock, G. R. 1967. “Surface Temperature as a Parameter in Estimating Laser Injury Thresholds.”USAMRL Report No. 733 (AD 658967).Google Scholar
  20. Ridgeway, D. 1968. “Three-Dimensional Steady State Temperature Distribution About Cylinders and Disks.”Bull. Math. Biophysics,30, 701–713.Google Scholar
  21. White, T. J., M. A. Mainster, J. H. Tips and P. W. Wilson. 1970. “Chorioretinal Thermal Behavior.”Bull. Math. Biophysics,32, 315–322.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© N. Rashevsky 1968

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. J. White
    • 1
  • M. A. Mainster
    • 1
  • P. W. Wilson
    • 1
  • J. H. Tips
    • 1
  1. 1.Life Sciences DivisionTechnology IncorporatedSan Antonio

Personalised recommendations