Advertisement

Chromatographia

, Volume 48, Issue 9–10, pp 623–630 | Cite as

Normal phase gradient polymer elution chromatography of polyester resins

  • H. J. A. Philipsen
  • H. A. Claessens
  • M. Bosman
  • B. Klumperman
  • A. L. German
Originals

Summary

Polymers can be characterized by gradient elution techniques in order to obtain information on their chemical composition and molar mass. In this paper, features and applications of Normal Phase Gradient Polymer Elution Chromatography (NP-GPEC) for the characterization of (co)polyesters are investigated. Two polyesters were characterized, using various stationary and mobile phases. Separation was shown to be dominated by end groups in most cases, and to a lesser extent by molar mass. A distinct influence of both column type and mobile phase type was observed. A polymer based polyamine (PA) column povided the best results, although no complete separation between the mono- and di-acid fractions could be obtained. In all cases, separation was governed by sorption rather than by precipitation/redissolution. NP-GPEC was shown to be a potentially interesting technique for the characterization of copolyesters according to the chemical composition of the backbone, independent of end groups.

Key Words

Column liquid chromatography Normal phase gradient elution Polyester resins 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    G. Glöckner, Gradient HPLC of Copolymers and Chromatographic Cross-fractionation. Springr Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg New York, 1991.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    S. Mori, H. Tazir, J. Liq. Chromatogr.17, 3055 (1994).Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    S. Teramachi, A. Hasegawa, T. Matsumoto, K. Kitahara, Y. Tsukahara, Y. Yamashita, Macromolecules25, 4025 (1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    W. J. Staal, Gradient Polymer Elution Chromatography, Ph.D. Thesis Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven, 1995.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    P. Kilz, R. P. Kruger, H. Much, G. Schulz, in Th. Provder, H. G. Barth, M. W. Urban, Eds. Advances in Chemistry Series 247: Chromatographic Characterization of Polymers, Hyphenated and Mulidimensional Techniques, American chemical Society, Washington DC, 1995, p. 223.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    H. J. A. Philipsen, B. Klumperman, A. M. van Herk, A. L. German, J. Chromatogr. A727, 13 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    F. P. B. van der Maeden, M. E. F. Biemond, P. C. G. M. Janssen, J. Chromatogr.149, 539 (1978).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    C. Kuo, Th. Provder, R. M. Holsworth, A. F. Kah, in J. Cazes (Ed.) Liquid Chromatography of Polymers and Related Materials III, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1981, p. 169.Google Scholar
  9. [9]
    G. Wick, H. Zeitler, Die Angew. Makromol. Chem.112, 59 (1983).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    M. Bauer, J. Bauer, H. Much, Acta Polymerica37, 221 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    S. Podzimek, J. Hyrsl, J. Appl. Polym. Sci.53, 1351 (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    K. Rissler, J. Chromatogr. A786, 85 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    R. P. Kruger, H. Much, G. Schulz, J. Liq. Chromatogr.17, 3069 (1994).Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    H. J. A. Philipsen, B. Klumperman, A. L. German, J. Chromatogr. A 746, 211 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    H. J. A. Philipsen, M. R. de Cooker, H. A. Claessens, B. Klumperman, A. L. German, J. Chromatogr. A761, 147 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    H. J. A. Philipsen, M. Oestreich, B. Klumperman, A. L. German, J. Chromatogr. A775, 157 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    H. J. A. Philipsen, B. Klumperman, A. L. German, Proc. Int. GPC. Symp., San Diego, 1996, p. 368.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    H. J. A. Philipsen, H. A. Claessens, H. Lind, B. Klumperman, A. L. German, J. Chromatogr. A790, 101 (1997).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    L. R. Snyder, Principles of Adsorption Chromatography, Marcel Dekker, New York, 1968.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    E. Soczewinski, Anal. Chem.41, 179 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    L. R. Snyder, J. L. Glajch, J. Chromatogr.218, 299 (1981).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    L. R. Snyder, T. C. Schunk, Anal. Chem.54, 1764 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    L. R. Snyder, J. L. Glajch, J. Chromatogr.248, 165 (1982).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. [24]
    L. R. Snyder, LC Magazine1, 478 (1983).Google Scholar
  25. [25]
    M. Lübke, J. L. le Quéré, D. Barron, J. Chromatogr. A690, 41 (1995).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. [26]
    P. L. Smith, W. T. Cooper, J. Chromatogr.410, 249 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. [27]
    E. L. Weiser, A. W. Salatto, S. M. Flach, L. R. Snyder, J. Chromatogr.303, 1 (1984).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. [28]
    W. T. Cooper, P. L. Smith, J. Chromatogr.355, 57 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. [29]
    S. R. Abbott, J. Chromatogr. Sci.18, 540 (1980).Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    G. Jones, J. Chromatogr.276, 69 (1983).Google Scholar
  31. [31]
    P. Jandera, J. Urbanek, B. Prokes, J. Churacek, J. Chromatogr.504, 297 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. [32]
    P. Jandera, J. Urbanek, B. Prokes, H. Blazkova-Brunova, J. Chromatogr. A736, 131 (1996).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. [33]
    J. G. Dorsey, W. T. Cooper, Anal. Chem.66, 857A (1994).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. [34]
    M. Augenstein, M. Stickler, Makromol. Chem.191, 415 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. [35]
    S. Teramachi, Macromol. Symp.110, 217 (1996).Google Scholar
  36. [36]
    S. Mori, J. Chromatogr.541, 375 (1991).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. [37]
    T. C. Schunk, J. Chromatogr. A656, 591 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. [38]
    L. Shihtse, J. Chromatogr.321, 2 (1985).Google Scholar
  39. [39]
    P. Jandera, Chromatographia26, 417 (1988).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. [40]
    P. Jandera, J. Bozkosna, J. Chromatogr.362, 325 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. [41]
    I. Zeman, J. Chromatogr. 363, 223 (1986).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. [42]
    L. R. Snyder, J. L. Glajch, J. J. Kirkland, Practical HPLC Method Development, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1988.Google Scholar
  43. [43]
    H. J. A. Philipsen, H. A. Claessens, unpublished work.Google Scholar
  44. [44]
    F. A. Bovey, F. H. Winslow, Macromolecules, Academic Press, Orlando, 1979.Google Scholar
  45. [45]
    H. J. A. Philipsen, F. P. C. Wubbe, B. Klumperman, A. L. German, J. Appl. Polym. Sci., accepted.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Friedr. Vieweg & Sohn Verlagsgesellschaft mbH 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. J. A. Philipsen
    • 1
  • H. A. Claessens
    • 2
  • M. Bosman
    • 3
  • B. Klumperman
    • 3
  • A. L. German
    • 3
  1. 1.Research and Development departmentOcé TechnologiesVenloNetherlands
  2. 2.Laboratory of Instrumental AnalysisEindhoven University of TechnologyEindhovenNetherlands
  3. 3.Laboratory of Polymer ChemistryEindhoven University of TechnologyEindhovenNetherlands

Personalised recommendations