Impedance measurement of individual skin surface electrodes
- 1.3k Downloads
The methods for the individual determination of skin surface electrode impedances are briefly discussed. A measurement technique is described with which it is possible to measure two skin surface electrodes simultaneously, but individually, at the same frequency. The design of a small, portable, battery-operated meter using this principle is described with block diagrams. Results are presented from the study of bilateral g.s.r. waves, the site dependence of the skin impedance, the differences between 10Hz and 1000 Hz data, and tissue segment impedance.
KeywordsGalvanic skin response (g.s.r.) Impedance meter Skin impedance
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Barnett, A. (1938) The phase angle of normal human skin.J. Physiol.,93, 349–366.Google Scholar
- Geddes, L. A. andBaker, L. E. (1966) The relationship between input impedance and electrode area in recording the ECG.Med. & Biol. Eng.,4, 439–449.Google Scholar
- Gordon, D. H. (1975) Triboelectric interference in the ECG.IEEE Trans.,BME-22, 252–255.Google Scholar
- Grimnes, S. (1982b) Skin capacitance as a measure of effective electrode area. World Congress Med. Phys. Biomed. Eng., Hamburg, Proc. 7.16.Google Scholar
- Huhta, J.C. andWebster, J.G. (1973) 60-Hz interference in electrocardiography.IEEE Trans.,BME-20, 91–101.Google Scholar
- Lawler, J.C., Davis, M.J. andGriffith, E.C. (1960) Electrical characteristics of the skin.J. Invest. Derm.,34, 301–308.Google Scholar
- Olson, W.H., Schmincke, D.R. andHenley, B.L. (1979) Time and frequency dependence of disposable ECG electrode-skin impedance.Med. Instr.,13, 269–272.Google Scholar
- Plutchik, R. andHirsch, H.R. (1963) Skin impedance and phase angle as a function of frequency and current.Science,141, 927–928.Google Scholar
- Swanson, D.K. andWebster, J.G. (1974) A model for skin-electrode impedance. InBiomedical electrode technology,Miller, H.A. andHarrison, D.C. (Eds), Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Tregear, R.T. (1966)Physical functions of skin. Academic Press.Google Scholar