, 39:97 | Cite as

The order phyllachorales: Taxonomic review

  • Denise M. W. Silva-Hanlin
  • Richard T. Halin


The order Phyllachorales contains ascomycetous fungi of considerable economic importance. The group is represented mostly by foliar parasites which produce perithecia under a clypeus, inside a stroma, or do not produce any stromatic tissue. A major taxonomic problem with this order is the lack of reliable morphological characters that clearly delimit the entire group. The main purpose of this review is to provide a clear picture of the taxonomic relationships of the order Phyllachorales, along with a key to the most important genera in the family Phyllachoraceae.

Key Words

Loculoascomycetes phyllachoraceae phyllachorales taxonomy 

Literature cited

  1. Alexopoulos, C. J., Mims, C. W. and Blackwell, M. 1996. Introductory mycology, 4th ed. John Wiley and Sons, New York.Google Scholar
  2. Arx, J. A. von and Müller, E. 1954. Die Gattungen der Amerosporen Pyrenomyceten. Beitr. Kryptogamenfl. Schweiz11: 1–434.Google Scholar
  3. Barr, M. E. 1976a.Buergenerula and the Physosporellaceae. Mycologia68: 611–621.Google Scholar
  4. Barr, M. E. 1976b. Perspectives in the Ascomycotina. Mem. New York Bot. Gard.28: 1–8.Google Scholar
  5. Barr, M. E. 1977.Magnaporthe, Telimenella andHyponectria (Physosporellaceae). Mycologia69: 952–966.Google Scholar
  6. Barr, M. E. 1983. The ascomycete connection. Mycologia75: 1–13.Google Scholar
  7. Barr, M. E. 1987. Prodomus to Class Loculoascomycetes, Published by the author, Amherst, MA.Google Scholar
  8. Barr, M. E. 1990. Prodomus to nonlichenized, pyrenomycetous members of class Hymenoascomycetes. Mycotaxon39: 43–184.Google Scholar
  9. Bezerra, J. L. 1991. Taxonomia dos fungos causadores de Lixa no coqueiro. Fitopatol. Brasil16: 36.Google Scholar
  10. Boyd, E. S. 1934. A developmental study of a new species ofOphiodothella. Mycologia26: 456–468.Google Scholar
  11. Cannon, P. F. 1988. Proposal to merge the Phyllachorales with the Diaporthales, with a new family structure. System. Ascom.7: 23–43.Google Scholar
  12. Cannon, P. F. 1989. Notes onSphaerodothis species parasitic on Gramineae. Stud. Mycol.31: 49–59.Google Scholar
  13. Cannon, P. F. 1991. A revision ofPhyllachora and some similar genera on the host family Leguminosae. Mycol. Pap.163: 1–302.Google Scholar
  14. Cannon, P. F. 1993. Ascomycetes with banded spores. The genusRikatlia gen. nov. System. Ascom.11: 83–93.Google Scholar
  15. Cannon, P. F. 1994. The newly recognized family Magnaporthaceae and its interrelationships. System. Ascom.13: 25–42.Google Scholar
  16. Chadefaud, M. 1960. Les végétaux non vasculaires (Cryptogamie). In: Traité de botanique systématique. Tome I, (ed. by Chadefaud, M. and Emberger, L.), pp. 613–616. Masson et Cie, Paris.Google Scholar
  17. Clements, F. E. and Shear, C. L. 1931. The genera of fungi. H. W. Wilson, New York.Google Scholar
  18. Dennis, R. W. G. 1981. British ascomycetes, Rev. ed. J. Cramer, Varduz.Google Scholar
  19. Ellis, M. B. and Holliday, P. 1972.Leptosphaeria salvinii. CMI descriptions of pathogenic fungi and bacteria. No. 344. CMI Kew, Surrey, U.K.Google Scholar
  20. Eriksson, O. 1982. Outline of the ascomycetes-1982. Mycotaxon15: 203–248.Google Scholar
  21. Eriksson, O. E. and Hawksworth, D. L. 1993. Outline of the ascomycetes-1993. Syst. Ascom.12: 51–257.Google Scholar
  22. Farr, D. F., Bills, G. F., Charmuris, G. P. and Rossman, A. Y., 1989. Fungi on plants and plant products in the United States. APS Press, St. Paul, USA.Google Scholar
  23. Hanlin, R. T. 1990a.Acerviclypeatus, a new genus for the anamorph ofOphiodothella vaccinii. Mycotaxon37: 379–384.Google Scholar
  24. Hanlin, R. T. 1990b. Icones ascomycetum Georgiae:Ophiodothella vaccinii. Mycotaxon39: 1–8.Google Scholar
  25. Hanlin, R. T. 1990c. Illustrated genera of ascomycetes. APS Press, USA.Google Scholar
  26. Hanlin, R. T. and Tortolero, O. 1991. Icones ascomycetum Venezuelae:Phyllachora fusicarpa. Mycotaxon41: 19–26.Google Scholar
  27. Hawksworth, D. L. 1985. Problems and prospects in the systematics of the Ascomycotina. Proc. Indian Acad. (Sci.)94: 319–339.Google Scholar
  28. Hawksworth, D. L. and David, J. C. 1989. Family names-Index of Fungi Supplement. CAB International Mycological Institute, Kew, U.K.Google Scholar
  29. Hawksworth, D. L., Sutton, B. C. and Ainsworth, G. C. 1983. Ainsworth & Bisby’s Dictionary of the fungi, 7th ed. CMI, Kew, Surrey, U.K.Google Scholar
  30. Hawksworth, D. L., Kirk, P. M., Sutton, B. C. and Pegler, D. N. 1995. Ainsworth & Bisby’s Dictionary of the fungi, 8th ed. CAB International, Wallingford, U.K.Google Scholar
  31. Horst, R. K. 1990. Westcott’s plant disease handbook, 5th ed. AVI Book, USA.Google Scholar
  32. Jensen, J. D. 1985. Peridial anatomy and pyrenomycete taxonomy. Mycologia77: 688–701.Google Scholar
  33. Joly, P. 1961. Le genreSphaerodothis Shear. Bull. Res. Council Israel10D: 187–193.Google Scholar
  34. Katumoto, K. 1968. On the genusCoccodiella Hara.J. Jpn. Bot. 43: 277–284.Google Scholar
  35. Krause, R. A. and Webster, R. K. 1972. The morphology, taxonomy, and sexuality of the rice stem rot fungus,Magnaporthe salvinii (Leptosphaeria salvinii). Mycologia64: 103–114.Google Scholar
  36. Locquin, M. V. 1984. Mycologie Généra le et Structurale. Masson S.A., Paris.Google Scholar
  37. Luttrell, E. S. 1951. Taxonomy of the Pyrenomycetes. Univ. Missouri Stud.24: 1–120.Google Scholar
  38. Miller, J. H. 1949. A revision of the classification of the ascomycetes with special emphasis on the pyrenomycetes. Mycologia41: 99–127.Google Scholar
  39. Miller, J. H. 1951. Studies in the Phyllachoraceae I.Phyllachora ambrosiae (Berk. and Curt.) Sacc. Amer. J. Bot.38: 830–834.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Miller, J. H. 1954. Studies in the Phyllachoraceae II.Phyllachora lespedezae. Amer. J. Bot.41: 825–828.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Miller, J. H. and Burton, M. G. 1943. Study ofBagnisiopsis species on the Melastomaceae (sic!). Mycologia35: 312–334.Google Scholar
  42. Mordue, J. E. M. 1971.Glomerella cingulata. CMI descriptions of pathogenic fungi and bacteria. No. 315. CMI, Kew. Surrey, U.K.Google Scholar
  43. Müller, E. and Arx, J. A. von 1962. Die Gattungen der didymosporen Pyrenomyceten. Wabern, Bern.Google Scholar
  44. Munk, A. 1957. Danish Pyrenomycetes. A preliminary flora. Dansk Bot. Ark.17: 1–491Google Scholar
  45. Nannfeldt, J. A. 1932. Studien über die morphologie und systematik der nicht-lichenisierten inoperculaten discomyceten. Nova Acta Regiae Soc. Sci. Upsal. Ser. IV.8: 1–368.Google Scholar
  46. Orton, C. R. 1924. Studies in the morphology of the ascomycetes I. The stroma and the compound fructification of the Dothideaceae and other groups. Mycologia16: 49–95.Google Scholar
  47. Parbery, D. G. 1967. Studies on graminicolous species ofPhyllachora Nke. in Fckl. V. A taxonomic monograph. Austr. J. Bot.15: 271–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Petrak, F. 1924. Mykologische notizen No. 301. Über die phylogenetischen beziehungen der gattungPhyllachora Nit. und ihre bedeutung für das system der dothidealean pilze. Ann. Mycol.22: 1–10. (Original not seen.)Google Scholar
  49. Seaver, F. J. 1928. Studies in tropical Ascomycetes-V. Species ofPhyllachora. Mycologia20: 214–225.Google Scholar
  50. Shear, C. L. and Wood, A. K. 1913. Studies of fungus parasites belonging to the genusGlomerella. U.S.D.A. Bur. Pl. Industry. Bull.252: 1–110.Google Scholar
  51. Sherriff, C., Whelan, M. J., Arnold, G. M., Lafay, J.-F., Brygoo, Y. and Bailey, J. A. 1994. Ribosomal DNA sequence analysis reveals new species groupings in the genusColletotrichum. Exper. Mycol.18: 121–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Silva, D. M. W. 1996. Phylogenetic relationships of the Phyllachorales and related genera. PhD thesis, The University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia.Google Scholar
  53. Subileau, C., Renard, J. L. and Dennetiere, B. 1993.Phyllachora torrendiella (Batista) comb. nov., responsable de la maladie verruqueuse du cocotier. Mycotaxon49: 175–185.Google Scholar
  54. Sutton, B. C. 1992. The genusGlomerella and its anamorphColletotrichum In:Colletotrichum: Biology, pathology and control, (ed. by Bailey, J. A. and Jeger, M. J.), pp. 1–26. CAB International, Wallingford, U.K.Google Scholar
  55. Swart, H. J. 1982. Australian leaf-inhabiting fungi. XV.Ophiodothella longispora sp. nov. Trans. Br. Mycol. Soc.79: 566–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Theissen, F. and Sydow, H. 1915. Die Dothideales. Ann. Mycol.13: 147–746 +6plGoogle Scholar
  57. Wehmeyer, L. E. 1975. The pyrenomycetous fungi. Mycol. Mem.6: 1–250.Google Scholar
  58. Yaegashi, H. and Udagawa, S. 1978. The taxonomical identity of the perfect state ofPyricularia grisea and its allies. Can. J. Bot.56: 180–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Mycological Society of Japan 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Denise M. W. Silva-Hanlin
    • 1
  • Richard T. Halin
    • 2
  1. 1.Universidade Federal Rural de PernambucoDEPA/Área de FitossanidadeRecifeBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Plant PathologyUniversity of GeorgiaAthensUSA

Personalised recommendations