Non-linear electrical properties of skin in the low frequency range

  • T. Yamamoto
  • Y. Yamamoto


This paper describes the non-linear electrical properties of the skin during the passage of a sinusoidal current from the standpoint of the constant-current method. The non-linearity occurs in the current dependency of the skin impedance and in Lissajous figures. It exhibits both rapid and slow variations. The concept of a non-linear impedance and its equivalent circuit are introduced for a sinusoidal voltage. With regard to the current dependency of the impedance it can be said that both the starting point and the degree of the dependency vary with frequency and impedance. The nonlinearity is more apparent with a larger current, a lower frequency, and a higher impedance. with an increasing current, the ionic conductance increases and the polarisation admittance decreases. Lissajous figures are formed when the voltage is distorted notably from the sinusoidal wave form. Detailed investigations are undertaken for the elliptic figures, third harmonics, rectification, and breakdown of the skin appearing with a decrease of the frequency and increase of the current. Finally, the special mechanism of the ionic conduction in the keratin layer is indicated as one of the causes for non-linearity.


Electrical properties of skin Skin impedance 


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Copyright information

© IFMBE 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • T. Yamamoto
    • 1
  • Y. Yamamoto
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Electrical Engineering, School of EngineeringOkayama Universitytsushima, OkayamaJapan

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