Medical and Biological Engineering and Computing

, Volume 27, Issue 5, pp 449–455 | Cite as

Automatic detection of sounds and murmurs in patients with lonescu-Shiley aortic bioprostheses

  • H. L. Baranek
  • H. C. Lee
  • G. Cloutier
  • L. -G. Durand
Computing and Data Processing


The problems encountered in the automatic detection of cardiac sounds and murmurs are numerous. The phonocardiogram (PCG) is a complex signal produced by deterministic events such as the opening and closing of the heart valves, and by random phenomena such as blood-flow turbulence. In addition, background noise and the dependence of the PCG on the recording sites render automatic detection a difficult task. In the paper we present an iterative automatic detection algorithm based on the a priori knowledge of spectral and temporal characteristics of the first and second heart sounds, the valve opening clicks, and the systolic and diastolic murmurs. The algorithm uses estimates of the PCG envelope and noise level to identify iteratively the position and duration of the significant acoustic events contained in the PCG. The results indicate that it is particularly effective in detecting the second heart sound and the aortic component of the second heart sound in patients with lonescu-Shiley aortic valve bioprostheses. It has also some potential for the detection of the first heart sound, the systolic murmur and the diastolic murmur.


Bioprosthetic heart valves Heart sound detection Parameter extraction Phonocardiography Spectral analysis 

List of symbols


aortic opening click


aortic component of the second heart sound


bandwidth at −30 dB


threshold parameter


control population


duration of A2


diastolic murmur




crossover frequency: frequency of minimum absolute difference found between two spectra


dominant frequency peak


second dominant frequency peak


Kappa statistic


chance agreement




probability for rejecting the hypothesis that the mean values in the parameters estimated byi and byj are equal


observed agreement


pulmonary component of the second heart sound


complex wave of the ECG


systolic murmur


first heart sound


second heart sound


threshold level of theith iteration


test population


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Copyright information

© IFMBE 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. L. Baranek
    • 1
    • 2
  • H. C. Lee
    • 2
  • G. Cloutier
    • 1
    • 3
  • L. -G. Durand
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Clinical Research Institute of MontrealUniversity of MontrealMontrealCanada
  2. 2.Department of Electrical EngineeringMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada
  3. 3.Biomedical Engineering Institute, École PolytechniqueUniversity de MontrealMontrealCanada

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