Advertisement

Archives of Sexual Behavior

, Volume 25, Issue 2, pp 125–140 | Cite as

Volunteer bias in human sexuality research: Evidence for both sexuality and personality differences in males

  • Anthony F. Bogaert
Article

Abstract

The extent to which personality, social behavior, and sexuality differed in undergraduate males under two different types of recruitment, volunteer and nonvolunteer, was investigated. Nonvolunteers (N=160) were ostensibly recruited for a study on personality, and volunteers (N=204) were overtly recruited for a study on human sexuality. Both samples completed the same personality, social behavior, and sexuality questionnaires. Volunteers were found to be more sexually experienced, more interested in sexual variety, and more erotophilic than the nonvolunteers. In addition and contrary to most prior research, the volunteer and nonvolunteer samples also differed in personality and social behavior, with the volunteers being higher in sensation seeking and lower on measures of social conformity and rule-following behavior than the nonvolunteers. Results extend prior research suggesting limits to the generalizability of some human sexuality research.

Key words

personality sexuality sampling volunteers 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Barker, J. W., and Perlman, D. (1975). Volunteer bias and personality traits in sexual standards research.Arch. Sex. Behav. 4: 161–171.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bauman, K. E. (1973). Volunteer bias in a study of sexual knowledge, attitudes, and behavior.J. Marr. Fam. 35: 27–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bentler, P. M. (1968). Heterosexual behavior assessment — 1: Males.Behav. Res. Ther. 6: 21–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bogaert, A. F. (1992). Volunteer bias in sex research: An exploratory study of self-reported autoerotic experiences.Can. J. Hum. Sex. 1: 207–211.Google Scholar
  5. Bogaert, A. F. (1993a). The sexual media: The role of individual differences Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Wester Ontario, London, Canada.Google Scholar
  6. Bogaert, A. F. (1993b). Personality, delinquency, and sexuality: Data from three Canadian samples.Pers. Indiv. Diff. 15: 353–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bogaert, A. F. (1994). An individual difference approach to the sexual media. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  8. Bogaert, A. F., and Fisher, W. A. (1994). Predictors of males' sexual partners in the era of AIDS. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  9. Bogaert, A. F., and Rushton, J. P. (1989). Sexuality, delinquency, andr/K reproductive strategies: Data from a Canadian University sample.Pers. Indiv. Differ. 10: 1071–1077.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Christie, R., and Geis, F. C. (1970).Studies in Machiavellianism Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  11. Claridge, G. (1983). The Eysenck Psychoticism Scale. In Butcher, J. N., and Speilberger, C. D. (eds.),Advances in Personality Assessment, Vol. 2, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, pp. 71–114.Google Scholar
  12. Eysenck, H. J. (1976).Sex and Personality, Open Books, London.Google Scholar
  13. Eysenck, H. J., and Eysenck, S. B. G. (1975).Manual of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, Hodder & Stoughton, London.Google Scholar
  14. Eysenck, H. J., and Eysenck, S. B. G. (1976).Psychoticism as a Personality Dimension, Hodder & Stoughton, London.Google Scholar
  15. Farkas, F. M., Sine, L. F., and Evans, I. M. (1978). Personality, sexuality, and demographic differences between volunteers and nonvolunteers for a laboratory study of male sexual behaviour.Arch. Sex. Behav. 7: 513–520.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fisher, W. A., Byrne, D., White, L., and Kelley, K. (1988). Erotophobia — Erotophilia as a dimension of personality.J. Sex. Res. 25: 123–151.Google Scholar
  17. Hindelang, M. J., Hircshi, T., and Weis, J. G. (1979). Correlates of delinquency: The illusion of discrepancy between self-report and official measures.Am. Sociol. Rev. 44: 995–1014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jackson, D. N. (1967).Manual for the Personality Research Form, Research Psychologists Press, Goshen, NY.Google Scholar
  19. Jackson, D. N. (1984).Personality Research Form Manual, Research Psychologists Press, Port Huron, MI.Google Scholar
  20. Kaats, G. R., and Davis, K. E. (1971). Effects of volunteer biases in studies of sexual behavior and attitudes.J. Sex Res. 7: 26–34.Google Scholar
  21. Kenrick, D. T., Stringfield, D. O., Wagenhals, W. L., Dahl, R., and Ransdell, H. J. (1980). Sex differences, androgyny and approach responses to erotica: A new variation on an old volunteer problem.J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 38: 517–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Koss, M. (1993). Detecting the scope of rape: A review of prevalence research methods.J. Interpers. Violence 8: 198–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Koss, M. P., and Oros, C. J. (1982). Sexual Experiences Survey: A research instrument investigating sexual aggression and victimization.J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 50: 455–457.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Malamuth, N. M. (1986). Predictors of naturalistic sexual aggression.J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 50: 953–962.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Malamuth, N. M. (1989a). The Attraction to Sexual Aggression Scale: Part 1.J. Sex. Res. 26: 26–49.Google Scholar
  26. Malamuth, N. M. (1989b). The Attraction to Sexual Aggression Scale: Part 2.J. Sex Res. 26: 324–354.Google Scholar
  27. Morokoff, P. J. (1986). Volunteer bias in the psychophysiological study of female sexuality.J. Sex Res. 22: 35–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Mosher, D. L., and Anderson, R. D. (1986). Macho personality, sexual aggression, and reactions to guided images of rape.J. Res. Pers. 20: 70–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mosher, D. L., and Sirkin, M. (1984). Measuring a macho personality constellation.J. Res. Pers. 18: 150–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Nederhof, A. (1983). The effects of material incentives in mail surveys: Two studies.Public Opinion Quart. 47: 103–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Nirenberg, T. D., Wincze, J. P., Bansal, S., Liepman, M. R., Engle-Friedman, M., and Begin, A. (1991). Volunteer bias in a study of male alcoholics' sexual behavior.Arch. Sex. Behav. 20: 371–379.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rushton, J. P., and Chrisjohn, R. D. (1980). Extraversion, Neuroticism, Psychoticism and Self-Reported Delinquency.Pers. Indiv. Diff. 2: 11–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rushton, J. P., Chrisjohn, R. D., and Fekkon, G. C. (1981). The altruistic personality and the Self-Report Altruism Scale.Pers. Indiv. Diff. 2: 293–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Shepher, J., and Reisman, J. (1985). Pornography: A sociobiological attempt at understanding.Ethnol. Sociobiol. 6: 103–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Saunders, D. M., Fisher, W. A., Hewitt, E. C., and Clayton, J. P. (1985). A method for empirically assessing volunteer selection effects: Recruitment procedures and responses to erotica.J. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 49: 1703–1712.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Tims, A. R., Jr., Swart, C., and Kidd, R. F. (1976). Factors affecting predecisional communication behavior after helping requests.Hum. Commun. Res. 2: 271–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Winett, R. A., Stewart, G., Majors, and James, S. (1978). Prompting techniques to increase the return rate of mailed questionnaires.J. Appl. Behav. Anal. 11: 437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wolchik, S. A., Braver, S. L., and Jensen, K. (1985). Volunteer bias in erotica research: Effects of intrusiveness of measure and sexual background.Arch. Sex. Behav. 14: 93–107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Wolchik, S. A., Spencer, S. L., & Lisi, I. S. (1983). Volunteer bias in research employing vaginal measures of sexual arousal: Demographic, sexual and personality characteristics.Arch. Sex. Behav. 12: 399–408.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Zuckerman, M. (1979).Sensation Seeking: Beyond the Optimal Level of Arousal Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anthony F. Bogaert
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyBrock UniversitySt. CatherinesCanada

Personalised recommendations