Human Evolution

, Volume 16, Issue 3–4, pp 151–158 | Cite as

Two new“Meganthropus” mandibles from Java

  • Tyler D. E. 
Article

Abstract

There are now eleven known mandibular pieces from the Lower and Middle Pleistocene of Java, all but one being from the Sangiran site. All of these have been assigned toHomo erectus by most authorities, while others have suggested as many as four different hominoid taxa. Two of the mandibles, Sangiran 33 (Mandible H) and“Meganthropus”D (no Sangiran number yet assigned), are described here for the first time. The two new mandibles come from the Upper Pucangan Formation and date approximately 1.2–1.4 Myr. They are morphologically compatible with other“Meganthropus” mandibles described from Java. Despite attempts by numerous authorities to place all the Sangiran hominid mandibles in the species,H. erectus, the range of variation in metric and nonmetric features of the“Meganthropus” hominids is clearly beyond the know variation found inH. erectus. “Meganthropus” could represent a speciation from the well-knownH. erectus.

Keywords

Homo erectus “Meganthropus” Java Southeast Asia 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Brown WL (1958)Some zoological concepts applied to problems in evolution of the hominid lineage. Am. Sci., 46, 151–158.Google Scholar
  2. Campbell BG (1973)New concepts in physical anthropology: fossil man. Ann. Rev. Anthrop., 1, 27–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Coon CS (1962)The Origin of Races. New York: Knopf.Google Scholar
  4. Curtis GH (1981)Man’s immediate forerunners: Establishing a relevant time scale in anthropological and archaeological research. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, Series B, 292, 7–20.Google Scholar
  5. Franzen JL (1985a)Asian australopithecines? In (PV Tobias Ed.) HominidEvolution: Past, Present, and Future, pp. 255–263.New York:Liss.Google Scholar
  6. Franzen JL (1985b)What is “Pithecanthropus dubius Koenigswald, 1950”? In (E.Delson Ed.)Ancestors: The Hard Evidence, pp. 221–226. New York: Liss. Hutterer KL (1985) The Pleistocene archaeology of Southeast Asian regional context. Mod. Quat. Res. SE Asia 9, 1–23.Google Scholar
  7. Itihara M, Sudijono S, Kadar D, Shibisaki T, Kumai H, Yoshikawa S, Aziz F, Soeradi T, Wikarno, Kadar AP, Hadibuan F & Kagemori Y (1985a)Geology and stratigraphy of the Sangiran area. In (N Watanabe & D Kadar Eds.) Quaternary Geology of the Hominid Fossil Bearing Formations Java: Reprot of the Indonesia-Japan Joint Research Project CTA-41, 1976-/979. Special Bulletin Number 4. Bandung, Ondonesia: Geological Research and Development Centre, pp. 11–27.Google Scholar
  8. Itihara M, Kadar D & Watanabe N (1985b) Concluding remarks. In (N Watanabe & D Kadar (Eds.)Quatematy Geology of the Hominid Fossil Bearing Formations in Java: Report of the Indonesia-Japan Joint Research Project CTA41, 1976–1979. Special Bulletin Number 4. Bandung, Indonesia: Geological Research and Development Centre, pp. 367–378.Google Scholar
  9. Jacob T (1973)Paleoanthropological discoveries in Indonesia with special reference to the finds of the last two decades. J. hum. Evol. 2, 473–485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Jacob T (1980)“Pithecanthropus” of Indonesia.- The phenotype, genetics, and ecology. In (LK Konigsson Ud.) CurRent Arguments on Early Man, Proceedings of a Nobel Symposium, 41 Karlskoga, Sweden, May, 1978.Google Scholar
  11. von Koenigswald GHR (1949)Vertebrate stratigraphy. In (RW Bemmelen ed.) the Geology of Indonesia, 1A. Martin Nijhoff, The Hague, 91–93.Google Scholar
  12. von Koenigswald GHR (1954)“Pithecanthropus,” “Meganthropus” and the Australopithecinae. Nature, 173, 795–797.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. von Koenigswald GHR (1954)“Meganthropus palaeojavanicus v.K.” a new fossil hominid from Java. Cong. Int. Anthrop. Ethnol. Bruxelles, 1948, pp. 271–272.Google Scholar
  14. Kramer A (1989)The Evolutionary and Taxonomic Affinities of the Sangiran Mandibles of Central Java, Indonesia. Ph.D. dissertation, The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
  15. Kramer A & Konigsber LW (1994)The Phyletic Position of Sangiran 6 as Determined by Multivariate Analyses. In (JL Franzen, Ed.) 100 Years of Pithecanthropus: TheHomo erectus Problem, pp. XX-XX. Frankfurt a.M.: Courier Forschungsintitut Senckenberg.Google Scholar
  16. Krantz GS (1975)An explanation for the diastema of Java erectus skull IV. In (RH Tuttle Ed.) Paleoanthropology, Morphology, and Paleoecology, pp. 361–372. The Hague: Mouton.Google Scholar
  17. Krantz GS (1981)The Process of Human Evolution. Cambridge, MA: Schenkman Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  18. Krantz GS (1994)The palate of skull Sangiran 4 from Java. In (JL Franzen, Ed.) 100 Years of Pithecanthropus: TheHomo erectus Problem, pp. 69–74. Frankfurt a. M.: Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg.Google Scholar
  19. Le Gros Clark WE (1955)The Fossil Evidence for Human Evolution, 3rd Edition. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  20. Lovejoy CO (1970)The taxonomic status of the “Meganthropus” mandibular fragments from the Djetis beds of Java. Man N.S., 5, 228–236.Google Scholar
  21. Marks P (1953)Preliminary note on the discovery of a new jaw of “Meganthropus von Koenigswald” in the Lower Middle Pleistocene of Sangiran, Central Java. Indonesian Journal of Natural Science, 1,2,3, 26–33.Google Scholar
  22. Matsu’ura S (1982)A chronological framing for the Sangiran hominids: Fundamental study by the fluorine dating method. Bulletin of the NationalScience Museum, Tokyo, Ser. D (Anthropology), 8,1–53.Google Scholar
  23. Matsu’ura S (1985)A consideration of the stratigraphic horizons of hominid finds from Sangiran by the fluorine method. In (N Watanabe & D Kadar Eds.) Quaternary Geology of the Hominid Fossil Bearing Formations in Java: Report of the Indonesia-Japan Joint Research Project CTA-41,1976–1979. Special Bulletin Number 4. Bandung, Indonesia: Geological Research and Development Centre, pp. 359–366.Google Scholar
  24. Nishimura S, Ikeda T & Yokoyama T (1980)A fundamental investigation on the fission-track method. Report for Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research, pp. 5–11.Google Scholar
  25. Orchiston DW and Siesser WG (1982)Chronostratigraphy of the Plio-Pleistocene fossil hominids of Java. Mod. Quat. Res. SE Asia, 7, 131–149.Google Scholar
  26. Piveteau J (1957)Traite de Paleontologie. Volume Vil. Paris: Maisson et Cie.Google Scholar
  27. Pope GG & Cronin JE (1984)The Asian hominidae. J. hum. Evol. 13, 377–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Rightmire GP (1990)The evolution of Homo erectus: Comparative Anatomical Studies of an Extinct Human Species. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Robinson JT (1955)Further remarks on the relationship between “Meganthropus” and australopithecines. Am. J. Phys. Anthropol., 13, 429–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Robinson JT (1972)Early Hominid Posture and Locomotion. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  31. Sartono S (1961)Notes on a new find of a “Pithecanthropus” mandible. Publikasi. Tenik. Seri. Paleontologi, 2, 1–51.Google Scholar
  32. Sartono S (1980)Pre-sapiens migration in Southeast Asia. Internat. Ass. Historians of Asia, VIII th Conference, Kualalumpur (Malaysia), August, 1980.Google Scholar
  33. Sudijono S (1985)The Grenzbank, a key marker bed. In (N Watanabe & DKadar Eds.)Quarternary Geology of the Hominid Fossil Bearing Formations in Java: Report of the Indonesia-Japan Joint Research Project CTA-41, 1976–1979.Special Bulletin Number 4, Bandung, Indonesia:Geological Research and Development Centre, pp. 253–274.Google Scholar
  34. Suzuki M & Wikarno B (1982).Fission-track ages of pumice tuff layers and javites of hominid bearing Formations in Sangiran, Central Java. Comm. XI Int. Congr. INQUA, 2,322, Moscow.Google Scholar
  35. Suzuki M, Wikarno B, Saefudin I & Itihara M (1985)Fission-track ages of pumice tuff, tuff layers andjavites of hominid fossil bearing formations in Sangiran area, Central Java. In (N Watanabe & D Kadar (Eds.) Quaternary Geology of the Hominid Fossil Bearing Formations in Java: Report of the Indonesia-Japan Joint Research Project CTA-41 1976–1979. Special Bulletin Number 4, Bandung, Indonesia: Geological Research and Development Centre, pp. 309–358.Google Scholar
  36. Swisher CC, Curtis GH, Jacob, T, Getty AG, Suprijo A, & Widrasmoro (1994).Age of the Earliest Known Hominids in Java, Indonesia. Science, 263, 1118–1121.Google Scholar
  37. Tobias PV & von Koenigswald GHR (1964)A Comparison between the Olduvai hominines and those of Java and some implications for hominid phylogeny.Nature, 204, 515–518.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Tyler D.E. (1991)A taxonomy of Javan hominid mandibles. Human Evolution, 6, 401–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Tyler D.E. (1994)The taxonomic status of “Meganthropus.” In (JL Franzen, Ed.) 100 Years of“Pithecanthropus”: TheHomo erectus Problem, pp. 115–121.Frankfurt a.M.:Courier Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg.Google Scholar
  40. Watanabe N & Kadar D eds. (1985)Quaternary Geology of the Hominid Fossil Bearing Formations in Java: Report of the Indonesia-Japan Joint Research Project CTA-41, 1976–1979. Special Bulletin Number 4. Bandung, Indonesia:Geological Research and Development Centre.Google Scholar
  41. Weidenreich F (1945)Glant early man from Java and South China. Anthrop. Pap. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 40,1–134.Google Scholar
  42. Wolpoff MH (1975)Some aspects of human evolution. In (J.A. McNamara Ed.)Determinants of Mandibular Form and Growth, pp. 1–64.Ann Arbor:University of Michigan Press.Google Scholar
  43. Wolpoff MH (1980)Paleoanthropology. New York: Knopf.Google Scholar
  44. Wolpoff MH (1997)Human Evolution. Michigan State University: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  45. Yokoyama T, Hadiwisastra, S Hantoro, W, Matsuda, T & Nishimura, S (1980) KAr age of the “Lahar Tuff” lowest part of the Pucangan Formation, Pleistocene of Sangiran, Central Java, Indonesia. Riset. Geologi dan Pertambangan, LIPI, 3, 1–7.Google Scholar
  46. Zhang, Y (1984)The “Australopithecus“ of West Hubai and some early Pleistocene hominids of Indonesia. Acta Anthropol. Sinica, 3, 92.Google Scholar
  47. Zhang, Y (1985)Gigantopithecus and “Australopithecus” in China. In (Wu Rukang & JW Olson Eds.) Paleoanthropology and Paleolithic Archaeology in the People’s Republic of China, pp. 69–78. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© International Institute for the Study of Man 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tyler D. E. 
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnthropologyUniversity of IdahoMoscowU.S.A.

Personalised recommendations