Human Evolution

, Volume 4, Issue 1, pp 33–44 | Cite as

Early hominid physical evolution

  • Lia Queiroz do Amaral


Hindrances against bipedalism evolution are localized in obstetrical constraints, maternal mortality rates, infant birth trauma and unsafe pregnancy. Analysis of infant survival probability shows that a shift to bipedalism could occur as a necessary consequence of the process of body fur reduction, in a balance between such hindrances and safe infant transportation. Fur reduction is proposed to correlate with cooling mechanism in intra-species physical fights. The triggering of a feed-back mechanism connecting reduction of body fur to canine reduction would be responsible for a passage from threat displays to actual physical fights. The proposed scenario for such changes is the transition from uni-male to multi-male social structures among Hominoidea. The implications of the approach adopted are discussed.

Key words

bipedalism reproduction loss of fur infant carrying canine reduction 


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Copyright information

© Editrice Il Sedicesimo 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lia Queiroz do Amaral
    • 1
  1. 1.Instituto de FisicaUniversidade de São PauloSão PauloBrasil

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