Plant Foods for Human Nutrition

, Volume 50, Issue 1, pp 1–8

Accumulation and distribution of free folic acid content in red beet (Beta vulgaris L.)

  • M. Wang
  • I. L. Goldman
Article

Abstract

Among vegetable plants, red beet contains a relatively high level of the B vitamin folic acid. Although many leafy green vegetables contain high levels of folic acid, red beet is consumed primarily as a root vegetable. Folic acid levels have been quantified in various vegetable plants, but little information exists regarding the accumulation and distribution of this vitamin in plant tissues. The objective of this study was to characterize free folic acid content (FFAC) in shoot and root tissue during growth of two red beet inbreds. Experiments were conducted in a greenhouse during 1993, 1994 and 1995. Two inbreds, W384 and W357, were planted in randomized complete blocks and shoot and root tissues were separately harvested at 60, 80, and 100 days after planting (DAP). Significant differences between years, tissue portions, and among harvest dates were detected, however, similar patterns in FFAC accumulation and distribution were observed between inbreds and years. FFAC in shoot tissue was significantly greater than root tissue for both inbreds. Accumulation of FFAC was linear for both inbreds across harvest dates for root tissue but not for shoot tissue. FFAC accumulation in shoot tissue increased sharply from 60 to 80 DAP but decreased sharply from 80 to 100 DAP. These results demonstrate that FFAC accumulates differentially in root and shoot tissue in a red beet plant. Maximum folic acid levels in shoot tissue are achieved prior to those in root tissue.

Key words

Free folic acid content Red beet (Beta vulgarisDistribution Accumulation 

Abbreviations

FFAC

free folic acid content

DAP

days after planting

PGA

pteroylmonoglutamic acid

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Goddard MS, Mathews RH (1979) Contribution of fruits and vegetables to human nutrition. HortSci 14: 245–247.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mullin WJ, Wood DF, Howsam SG (1982) Some factors affecting folacin content of Spinach, Swiss chard, Broccoli and Brussels. Nutr Reports Intern 26: 7–16.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Lin KC, Luh BS, Schweigert BS (1975) Folic acid content of canned garbanzo bean. J Food Science 40: 562–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hoppner K, Lampi B, Perrin DE (1972) The free and total folate activity in foods available on the Canadian market. J Inst Can Sci Technol Aliment 5: 60–66.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Subar AF, Block G, James LD (1989) Folate intake and food sources in the US population. Am J Clin Nutrition 50: 508–516.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Czeizel AE, Dudas I (1992) Prevention of the first occurrence of neural-tube defects by periconceptional vitamin supplementation. N Engl J Med 327: 1832–1835.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Werler MM, Shapiro S, Mitchell AA (1993) Periconceptional folic acid exposure and risk of occurrent neural tube defects. J Am Med Assoc 269: 1257–1261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    McGanity W (1990) Multivitamin supplementation and neural tube defects. Vitamin Nutr Inf Service 2: 1–9.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Benito E, Stiggelbout A, Bosch F, Obrador A, Kaldor J, Mulet M, Munos N (1991) Nutritional factors in colorectal cancer risk: a case-control study in Majorca. Int J Cancer 49: 161–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    MRC Vitamin Study Research Group (1991) Prevention of neural tube defects: results of the Medical Research Council Vitamin Study. Lancet 338: 131–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Brattstrom L, Israelsson B, Jeppsson JO, Hultberg B (1988) Folic acid-an innocuous means of reducing plasma homocysteine. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 48: 215–221.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mason JB (1994) Folate and colonic carciogenesis: search for a mechanistic understanding. J. Nutr Biochem 5: 170–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Roos AJ, Spronk AM, Cossins EC (1968) 5-Methytetrahydrofolic acid and other folate derivatives in germinating pea seedlings. Can J Biochem 46: 1533–1536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Roos AJ, Cossins EC (1971) Pteroylglutamate derivatives inPisum sativum L. Biochem J 125: 17–26.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Clandinin MT, Cossins EA (1972) Localization and interconversion of tetrahydropteroyl-glutamates in isolated pea mitochondria. Biochem J 128: 29–40.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Kim WK (1970) Effect of excision and bezimidazole treatment on folate content of wheat leaves and wheat leaf chloroplasts. Can J Biochem 48: 1091–1095.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Cossins EA, Shah SPJ (1972) Pteroylglutamates of higher plant tissues. Phytochemistry 11: 587–593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cossins EA (1984) Folates in biological materials. In: Blakley RL, Benkovic SJ (eds), Folates and pterins, Vol. 1: Chemistry and biochemistry of folates. New York: John Wiley.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Baker H, Herbert V, Frank O, Pasher I, Hunter SH, Wasseman LR, Sobotka H (1959) A microbiological method for detecting folic deficiency in man. J Clin Chem 5: 175–280.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Baker H, Frank O (1967) A microbiological assay for folate activity. In: Gyorgy P, Pearson WN (eds), The vitamins-chemisty, physiology, pathology, methods, Vol. II. New York: Academic Press, pp 269–276.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hoppner K (1971) Free and total folate activity in strained baby foods. J Inst Can Technol Aliment 4: 51–54.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    SAS Institute (1986) SAS User's Guide: Statistics, 1986 edn. Cary, NC: SAS Institute, Inc.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wang M, Goldman IL (1995) Red beet (Beta volgaris L.) inbred lines and plant introductions differ in root folic acid content. Acta Horticulturae 426: 273–276.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wang M, Goldman IL (1996) Phenotypic variation in free folic acid content among F1 hybrids and OP cultivars in red beet (Beta vulgaris L.). J Am Soc Hort Sci 121: 1040–1042.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Crostin P, Lorusso V, Bianchetti R (1984) Folate cell content and distribution during the culture cycle ofEuglena gracilis. Plant Sci Lett 34: 363–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Crostin P, Gambini A, Bianchetti R (1987) Repression of folate synthesis in the logarithmic phase ofEuglena gracilis growth. Plant Sci 50: 91–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Crostin P, Gambini A, Bianchetti R (1987) Culture cycle dependence of folate interconversion and related enzymes inEuglena gracilis. Plant Sci 52: 21–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Crostin P, Malerba M, Bianchetti R (1993) Growth-dependent changes of folate matabolism and biosynthesis in culturedDaucus carota cells. Plant Sci 88: 97–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Shaw M, Manocha MS (1965) Fine structure in detached, senescing wheat leaves. Can J Bot 43: 747–755.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Waygood ER (1965) Benzimidazole effect in chloroplasts of wheat leaves. Plant physiol 40: 1242–1247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Shaw M, Bhattacharya PK, Quick WA (1965) Chlorophyll, protein, and nucleic acid levels in detached, senescing wheat leaves. Can J Bot 43: 739–746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Varmer JE (1961) Biochemistry of senescence. Ann Rev Plant Physiol 12: 245–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Wang
    • 1
  • I. L. Goldman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of HorticultureUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonUSA

Personalised recommendations