Advertisement

Environmental Geology

, Volume 2, Issue 1, pp 3–22 | Cite as

Heavy metals in the Derwent Estuary

  • H. Bloom
  • G. M. Ayling
Article

Abstract

Analyses of the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, and Zn in filtered waters, suspended particulates, sediments, shellfish, fish, airborne particulates, and sewage have confirmed work of other investigators showing that the Derwent Estuary is heavily contaminated, particularly withmercury, cadmium, lead, andzinc, and have added further information regarding the distribution of each metal. Apparently most of the contamination originated from the earlier operation of a zinc refining plant. A study of shellfish growing in variously contaminated regions found that more than 20 species could be listed in order of their respective abilities to accumulate each heavy metal. For example, the mussel (Mytilus edulis) was found to be a good indicator of cadmium and mercury contamination, but less valuable as an indicator of zinc. The surf barnacle, (Catophragmus polymerus) was found to be one of the most sensitive biological indicators of cadmium contamination. An indication of the steps by which a waste metal is eventually accumulated at high and even toxic concentrations in seafoods, may be seen from a comparison of the relative concentrations of cadmium, lead, mercury, and zinc found in mussels, sediments, suspended particulates, and filtered waters. The high concentrations recorded for metals include: 1,100 µg/g Hg, 10,000 µg/g Zn, and 862 µg/g Cd in dried sediments; 1,500 µg/g Cd in airborne dust fallout; 200 µg/g Cd and 100,000 µg/g Zn in dried oysters; and 16 µg/l Hg, 15 µg/l Cd and 1,500 µg/l Zn in filtered waters.

Keywords

Heavy Metal Mercury Cadmium Wharf Mercury Concentration 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abdullah, M. I., and L. G. Royle, 1972, Heavy metal content of rivers and lakes in Wales: Nature, v. 238, p. 329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abdullah, M. I., L. G. Royle, and A. W. Morris, 1972, Heavy concentration in coastal waters: Nature, v. 235, p. 158–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anon., 1968, Undersökningar för havsuts lapp år 1966–1967: Göteborgs Vattenvårdsanläggningar, 210 p.Google Scholar
  4. Anon., 1974, Heavy metals in the marine environment of the North Coast of Tasmania: report on a survey, November 1973: Department of the Environment, Hobart, 87 p.Google Scholar
  5. Ayling, G. M., 1974a, Preservation of traces of heavy metals in samples: paper presented to AWRC/AWWA/RACI Symposium Water Sampling and Analysis Techniques, Canberra, August 1974.Google Scholar
  6. —— 1974b, Uptake of cadmium, zinc, copper, lead and in the Pacific oyster,Crassostrea gigas, grown in the Tamar Tasmania: Water Res., v. 8, p. 729–738.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. —— 1975, The environmental influence on the uptake of by shellfish: paper presented at Environment '75, Syndney (1–4 July, v. 3, p. 237–246.Google Scholar
  8. Ayling, G. M., and H. Bloom, 1976, Heavy metals analyses to and estimate distribution of heavy metals in dust fallout: Atm Environ., v. 10, p. 61–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Belyayev, Yn. I., and V. V. Gordeyev, 1972, Determination of ganese, silver, lead and cadmium in sea water suspension by absorption with an arc atomizer: Okeanologiya, v. 12, no. 5, p. –910.Google Scholar
  10. Bond, R. G., and C. P. Straub, 1973, Handbook of environmental Vol. III, Water supply and treatment: Cleveland, CRC Press, p. –781.Google Scholar
  11. Brooks, R. R., R. J. Presley, and I. R. Kaplan, 1967, APDC-extraction system for the determination of trace elements in waters by atomic absorption spectrophotometry: Talanta, v. 14, 809–816.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bruland, K. W., K. Bertine, M. Koide, and E. D. Goldberg, History of metal pollution in southern California coastal zone: Sci. Technol., v. 8, p. 425–432.Google Scholar
  13. Chester, R., and J. H. Stoner, 1975, Trace elements in total particular material from surface sea water: Nature, v. 255, p. 50–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Clifton, A. P., and C. M. G. Vivian, 1975, Retention of mercury from a industrial source in Swansea Bay sediments: Nature, v. 253, p. –622.Google Scholar
  15. Cooke, N. E., and A. Birtel, 1971, Some aspects of other sources mercury in the environment,in Mercury in man's environment: Roy. Soc. Canad., Symp., Feb. 15–16, p. 53.Google Scholar
  16. Copeland, R. A., 1972, Mercury in the Lake Michigan environment, Hartung, R., and B. D. Dinman, eds., Environmental mercury tamination: Ann Arbor, Ann Arbor Science Publishers, p. 71–76.Google Scholar
  17. Cranston, R. E., and D. E. Buckley, 1972, Mercury pathways in a estuary: Environ. Sci. Technol., v. 6, no. 3, p. 274–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dall'Aglio, M., 1968, The abundance of mercury in 300 natural samples from Tuscany and Latium,in Ahrens, L. H., ed., Origin at distribution of elements: New York, Pergamon Press, p. 1065.Google Scholar
  19. Director of Environmental Control, 1972, Environmental pollution Tasmania: Government Printer, Rept. Dept. Environment, no. 74, 18 p.Google Scholar
  20. Director of Environmental Control, 1973, Report for Year 1972– Government Printer, Dept. Environment, Tasmania, no. 73, 19 p.Google Scholar
  21. -- 1974, Report for Year 1973–74: Government Printer, Environment, Tasmania, no. 87, 22 p.Google Scholar
  22. Dix, T. G., A. Martin, G. M. Ayling, K. C. Wilson, and D. A. Ratkowsky, 1975, Sand flathead (Platycephalus bassensis) and indicator species for mercury pollution in Australian waters: Mar. Pollut. Bull., v. 6, p. 142–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Durum, W. H., J. D. Hem, and S. G. Heidel, 1971, Reconnaissance of selected minor elements in surface waters of the United States: Oct., 1970: U.S. Geol. Survey Circ. 643, 49 p.Google Scholar
  24. Elderfield, H., L. Thornton, and J. S. Webb, 1971, Heavy metals and oyster culture in Wales: Mar. Pollut. Bull., v. 2, p. 44–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Eustace, I. J., 1974, Zinc, cadmium, copper and manganese in species of finfish and shellfish caught in the Derwent Estuary: Aust. Jour. Mar. Freshwat. Res., v. 25, p. 209–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fleischer, M., A. F. Garofim, D. W. Fassett, P. Hammond, H. T. Shacklette, I. C. T. Nisbet, and S. Epstein, 1974, Environmental impact of cadmium: a review by the panel on hazardous trace substances: Environmental Health Perspectives, May, p. 253–323.Google Scholar
  27. Friberg, L., M. Piscator, and G. Nordberg, 1971, Cadmium in the environment: Cleveland, CRC Press, 166 p.Google Scholar
  28. Friberg, L., M. Piscator, G. F. Nordberg, and T. Kjellstrom, 1974, Cadmium in the environment: Cleveland, CRC Press, p. 156.Google Scholar
  29. Greszta, J., and S. Godzik, 1969, Effect of zinc metallurgy on soils: Rocz. Gleboznawcze, v. 20, p. 195.Google Scholar
  30. Haigh, C. J., and R. W. Pickering, 1969, The treatment of zinc plant residue at the Risdon Works of the Electrolytic Zinc Company of Australia Limited: Electrolytic Zinc Company Report, Hobart.Google Scholar
  31. Hasselrot, T., 1968a, Communication inDagens Nyheter, 28 June,cited by Ackefors, H., G. Löfroth, and C-G. Rosen, 1970, A survey of the mercury pollution problem in Sweden with special reference to fish: Oceanog. Mar. Biol. Ann. Rev., v. 8, p. 203–224.Google Scholar
  32. —— 1968b, Report on current field investigations concerning the mercury content in fish, bottom sediment, and water: Rep. Inst. Freshwater Res., v. 48, p. 102.Google Scholar
  33. -- Hasselrot, T. 1969, Field investigations concerning the occurrence of mercury in fish, water, bottom sediment and bottom organisms: Report to the Research Board of the National Environmental Protection Board, Stencils.Google Scholar
  34. Her Majesty's Stationary Office, 1973, Survey of cadmium in food: London, Her Majesty's Stationary Office, 32 p.Google Scholar
  35. Hoggins, F. E., and R. R. Brooks, 1973, Natural dispersion of mercury from Puhipuhi, Northland, New Zealand: New Zealand Jour. Mar. Freshwat. Res., v. 7, p. 125–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Horvath, G. J., R. C. Harriss, and H. C. Mattraw, 1972, Land development and heavy metal distribution in the Florida Everglades: Mar. Pollut. Bull., v. 3, p. 182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ireland, M. P., 1973, Result of fluvial zinc pollution on the zinc content of littoral and sub-littoral organisms in Cardigan Bay, Wales: Environ. Pollut., no. 4, p. 27–35.Google Scholar
  38. Isaac, R. A., and J. Delaney, 1973, Toxic element survey; Progress Rept. 1: Mass. Water Resources Comm., Div. Water Pollution Control, Pub. no. 6108.Google Scholar
  39. Jaakkola, T., H. Takahashi, and J. K. Miettinen, 1974, Cadmium content in sea water, bottom sediments, fish, lichen, and elk in Finland: Report, World Health Org. Meeting, Geneva, 8–13 Feb.Google Scholar
  40. Jonasson, I. R., and R. W. Boyle, 1971, Geochemistry of mercury: Proc. Royal Society of Canada, Symp., Mercury in man's environment, Ottawa.Google Scholar
  41. Kato, T., and S. Kawano, 1968, Review of past and present of itai-itai disease. On the process of research development: Curr. Med., v. 16, p. 29.Google Scholar
  42. Kitamura, S., 1968, Determination of mercury content in bodies of inhabitants, cats, fishes and shells in Minamata District and in the mud of Minamata Bay, in Minamata Disease: Tokyo, Shuhan Co., p. 257–266.Google Scholar
  43. Klein, D. H., and E. D. Goldberg, 1970, Mercury in the marine environment: Environ. Sci. Technol., v. 4, p. 765–768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Konrad, J. G., 1972, Mercury contents of bottom sediments from Wisconsin rivers and lakes,in Hartung, R., and B. D. Dinman, eds., Environmental mercury contamination: Ann Arbor, Ann Arbor Science Publishers, p. 52–58.Google Scholar
  45. Kurland, L. T., S. N. Faro, and H. Siedler, 1960, Minamata disease: the outbreak of a neurologic disorder in Minamata, Japan, and its relationship to the ingestion of seafood contaminated by mercuric compounds: World Neurol., v. 1, p. 370.Google Scholar
  46. Ljunggren, K., B. Sjöstrand, D. Hagman, and T. Westermark, 1969, Recent experience in activation analysis: Nord. Hyg. T., v. 50, p. 75.Google Scholar
  47. Major, G. A., 1972, M.App.Sc. Thesis, University of New South Wales.Google Scholar
  48. -- 1973, Zinc in the marine environment: Aust. Mar. Sci. Assoc. Ann. Conf. (Rottnest Island, Western Australia), August, 11 p.Google Scholar
  49. Mink, L. L., R. E. Williams, and A. T. Wallace, 1971a, Analysis of an aquatic environment receiving domestic and industrial effluent: Univ. Missouri, Proc. Columbia 4th Ann. Conf. Trace Substances in Environmental Health, 1970, p. 69–84.Google Scholar
  50. -- 1971b, Effect of industrial and domestic effluents on the water quality of the Coeur d' Alene River basin, 1969 and 1970: Idaho Bur. Mines and Geol., Pamphlet no. 149, 30 p.Google Scholar
  51. Nickless, G., R. Stenner, and N. Terrille, 1972, Distribution of cadmium, lead and zinc in the Bristol Channel: Mar. Pollut. Bull., v. 3, p. 188–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Nix, J., and T. Goodwin, 1970, The simultaneous extraction of iron, manganese, copper, cobalt, nickel, chromium, lead, and zinc from natural water for determination by atomic absorption spectroscopy: Atomic Absorption Newsletter, v. 9, p. 119–122.Google Scholar
  53. Piscator, M., 1971,in Friberg, L., M. Piscator, and G. Nordberg, Cadmium in the environment: Cleveland, CRC Press.Google Scholar
  54. Preston, A., D. F. Jeffries, J. W. R. Dutton, B. R. Harvey, and A. K. Steele, 1972, British Isles coastal waters: the concentrations of selected heavy metals in sea water, suspended matter and biological indicators—a pilot survey: Environ. Pollut., no. 3, p. 69–82.Google Scholar
  55. Ratkowsky, D. A., S. J. Thrower, I. J. Eustace, and June Olley, 1974a, A numerical study of the concentration of some heavy metals in Tasmanian oysters: Jour. Fish. Res. Bd. Canada, v. 31, no. 7, p. 1165–1171.Google Scholar
  56. Ratkowsky, D. A., T. G. Dix, and K. C. Wilson, 1974b, Mercury in fish in the Derwent Estuary, Tasmania, and its relation to the position of the fish in the food chain: Hobart, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Office (CSIRO), Internal Report.Google Scholar
  57. Riley, J. P., and D. Taylor, 1968, Chelating resins for the concentrations of trace elements from sea water and their analytical use in conjunction with atomic absorption spectrophotometry: Anal. Chim. Acta, v. 40, p. 479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Robertson, D. E., 1968, Role of contamination in trace element analysis of sea water: Anal. Chem. Acta, v. 40, p. 1067–1072.Google Scholar
  59. Rojahn, T., 1972, Determination of copper, lead, cadmium and zinc in estuarine water by anodic-stripping voltammetry on the hanging mercury drop electrode: Anal. Chim. Acta, v. 62, p. 438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Senate Select Committee, 1970, Water pollution in Australia: Canberra, Commonwealth Government Printing Office, v. 15, 214 p.Google Scholar
  61. Takeuchi, T., M. Morikawa, H. Matsumoto, and Y. Shiraishi, 1962, A pathologic study of Minamata disease in Japan: Acta Neuropathologica, v. 2, p. 40–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Takeuchi, T., 1972, Distribution of mercury in the environment of Minamata Bay and the Inland Ariake Sea,in Hartung, R., and B. D. Dinman, eds., Environmental mercury contamination: Ann Arbor, Ann Arbor Science Publishers, p. 79–81.Google Scholar
  63. Thomas, R. L., 1972, The distribution of mercury in the sediments of Lake Ontario: Can. Jour. Earth Sci., v. 9, p. 636.Google Scholar
  64. Thrower, S. J., and I. J. Eustace, 1973a, Heavy metals in Tasmanian oysters in the winter of 1972: Aust. Fish., v. 32, no. 10, p. 7–10.Google Scholar
  65. —— 1973b. Heavy metal accumulation in oysters grown in Tasmanian waters: Food Technol. Aust., v. 25, p. 546–553.Google Scholar
  66. Van As, D., H. O. Fourie, and Constance M. Vleggaar, 1973, Accumulation of certain trace elements in marine organisms from the sea around the Cape of Good Hope: Radioactive Contamination of the Marine Environment, Internat. Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, IAEA-SM-158/39, p. 615–624.Google Scholar
  67. Van Loon, J. C., J. Lichwa, D. Rutton, and J. Kinrade, 1973, The determination of heavy metals in domestic sewage treatment plant wastes: Water Air Soil. Pollut., v. 2, p. 473–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Walter, C. M., F. C. June, and H. G. Brown, 1973, Mercury in fish, sediments, and water in Lake Oahe, South Dakota: Jour. Water Pollut. Cont. Fed., v. 45, no. 10, p. 2203–2210.Google Scholar
  69. Weiler, R. R., and V. K. Chawla, 1972, Chemical composition of Lake Erie: Proc. 11th Cong. Great Lakes Research, Burlington, Ont., 1968, v. 71, no. 6, p. 593.Google Scholar
  70. Wershaw, R. L., 1970, Sources and behavior of mercury in surface waters,in Mercury in the environment: U.S. Geological Survey Prof. Paper no. 713, p. 29.Google Scholar
  71. Wiklander, L., 1968, Mercury in subsoil water and river water: Grundförbättning, v. 4, p. 151.Google Scholar
  72. Yamagata, N., and I. Shigematsu, 1970,in Cadmium pollution in perspective: Bull. Inst. Public Health, Tokyo, v. 19, p. 1.Google Scholar
  73. Yamamoto, Y., 1972, Present status of cadmium environmental pollution: Kankyo Hoken Report No. 11, Japanese Assoc. for Public Health, April, v. 7.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Bloom
    • 1
  • G. M. Ayling
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryUniversity of TasmaniaHobart
  2. 2.Tasmanian Department of the EnvironmentHobart

Personalised recommendations