, 89:267 | Cite as

Fluctuating asymmetry and sexual selection

  • A. P. Møller
  • A. Pomiankowski


Fluctuating asymmetry occurs when an individual is unable to undergo identical development on both sides of a bilaterally symmetrical trait. Fluctuating asymmetry measures the sensitivity of development to a wide array of genetic and environmental stresses. We propose that fluctuating asymmetry is used in many signalling contexts for assessment of an individual's ability to cope with its environment. We hypothesize that fluctuating asymmetry is used in sexual selection, both in fighting and mate choice, and in competition for access to resources. Evidence is reviewed showing that the patterns of fluctuating asymmetry in secondary sexual characters differ from those seen in other morphological traits. Secondary sexual characters show much higher levels of fluctuating asymmetry. Also, there is often a negative relationship between fluctuating asymmetry and the absolute size of ornaments, whereas the relationship is typically U-shaped in other morphological traits. The common negative relationship between fluctuating asymmetry and ornament size suggests that many ornaments reliably reflect individual quality.

Key words

fluctuating asymmetry heterozygosity reliable signalling sexual selection stress 


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. P. Møller
    • 1
  • A. Pomiankowski
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Genetics and BiometryUniversity College LondonLondonUK

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