Experimental Mechanics

, Volume 43, Issue 3, pp 323–330 | Cite as

Mixed-mode failure of thin films using laser-generated shear waves

  • J. Wang
  • N. R. Sottos
  • R. L. Weaver


A new test method is developed for studying mixed-mode interfacial failure of thin films using laser generated stress waves. Guided by recent parametric studies of laser-induced tensile spallation, we successfully extend this technique to achieve mixed-mode loading conditions. By allowing an initial longitudinal wave to mode convert at an oblique surface, a high amplitude shear wave is generated in a fused silica substrate and propagated toward the thin-film surface. A shear wave is obtained with amplitude large enough to fail an Al film/fused silica interface and the corresponding shear stress calculated from high-speed interferometric displacement measurements. Examination of the interfaces failed under mixed-mode conditions reveals significant wrinkling and tearing of the film, in great contrast to blister patterns observed in similar Al films failed under tensile loading.

Key Words

Mixed-mode film failure pulsing laser shear wave mode conversion interfacial adhesion 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Mittal, K.L., “Selected Bibliography on Adhesion Measurement of Films and Coatings,”J. Adhesion Sci. Technol.,1 (3),247–259 (1987).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hull, T.R., Colligon, J.S., andHill, A.E., “Measurement of Thin Film Adhesion,”Vacuum,37,327–330 (1987).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Kriese, M.D., Gerberich, W.W., andMoody, N.R., “Quantitative Adhesion Measures of Multilayer Films: Part I. Indentation Mechanics,”J. Mater. Res.,14 (7),3007–3018 (1999).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kriese, M.D., Gerberich, W.W., andMoody, N.R., “Quantitative Adhesion Measures of Multilayer Films: Part II. Indentation of W/Cu, W/W, Cr/W,”J. Mater. Res.,14 (7),3019–3026 (1999).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kim, K.S. andKim, J., “Elasto-plastic Analysis of the Peel Test for Thin Film Adhesion,”J. Eng. Mater. Technol.-Trans. ASME,110 (3),266–273 (1988).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Thouless, M.D., “Fracture Mechanics for Thin Film Adhesion,”IBM J. Res. Dev.,38,367–377 (1994).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Vossen, J.L., “Measurement of Film-substrate Bond Strength by Laser Spallation,”Adhesion Measurement of Thin Films, Thick Films and Bulk Coatings, ASTM STP 640,122–133 (1978).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Yang, L.C., “Stress Waves Generated in Thin Metallic Films by a Q-swithed Ruby Laser,”J. Appl. Phys.,45 (6),2601–2607 (1974).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gupta, V., Argon, A.S., Cornie, J.A., andParks, D.M., “Measurement of Interface Strength by Laser Pulse-induced Spallation,”Mater. Sci. Eng. A,126,105–117 (1990).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gupta, V., Argon, A.S., Parks, D.M., andCornie, J.A., “Measurement of Interface Strength by a Laser Spallation Technique,”J. Mech. Phys. Solids,40,141–180 (1992).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Gupta, V. andYuan, J., “Measurement of Interface Strength by the Modified Laser Spallation Technique. II. Applications to Metal/ceramic Interfaces,”J. Appl. Phys.,74,2397–2404 (1993).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gupta, V., Yuan, J., andPronin, A., “Recent Developments in the Laser Spallation Technique to Measure the Interface Strength and Its Relationship to Interface Toughness with Applications to Metal/ceramic, Ceramic/ceramic and Ceramic/polymer Interfaces,”J. Adhesion Sci. Technol.,8,713–747 (1994).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Yuan, J. andGupta, V., “Measurement of Interface Strength by the Modified Laser Spallation Technique. I. Experiment and Simulation of the Spallation Process,”J. Appl. Phys.,74,388–2396 (1993).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Yuan, J., Gupta, V., andPronin, A., “Measurement of Interface Strength by the Modified Laser Spallation Technique. III. Experimental Optimization of the Stress Pulse,”J. Appl. Phys.,74,2405–2410 (1993).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Barker, L. M. andHollenbach, R. E., “Interferometer Technique for Measuring the Dynamic Mechanical Properties of Materials,”Rev. Sci. Instrum.,36,1617 (1965).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wang, J., Weaver, R.L., andSottos, N.R., “A Parametric Study of Laser Induced Thin Film Spallation,” EXPERIMENTAL MECHANICS,42 (1),74–83 (2002).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Evans, A. andHutchinson, J., “The Thermomechanical Integrity of Thin Films and Multilayers,”Acta Metall. Mater.,43,2507–2530 (1995).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Thouless, M.D., “Fracture of a Model Interface Under Mixed-mode Loading,”Acta Metall.,38,1135–1140 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Charalambides, P.G., Cao, H.C., Lund, J., andEvans, A.G., “Development of Test Method for Measuring the Mixed Mode Fracture Resistance of Bimaterial Interfaces,”Mechanics of Materials,8,269–283 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wang, J.S. andSuo, Z., “Experimental Determination of Interfacial Toughness Using Brazil-nut Sandwich,”Acta Metall.,38,1279–1290 (1990).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Graff, K., Wave Motion in Elastic Solids, Dover (1991).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Barker, L.M. andHollenbach, R.E., “Shock Wave Studies of PMMA, Fused Silica and Sapphire,”J. Appl. Phys.,41,4208–4226 (1970).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Wang, J., “Thin Film Adhesion Measurement by Laser Induced Stress Waves,” PhD thesis, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (2002).Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hutchinson, J.W. andSuo, Z., “Mixed Mode Cracking in Layered Materials,”Advances in Applied Mechanics,29,63–191 (1992).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Society for Experimental Mechanics 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Wang
    • 1
  • N. R. Sottos
    • 2
  • R. L. Weaver
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringUniversity of CaliforniaRiverside
  2. 2.Department of Theoretical and Applied MechanicsUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignUrbana

Personalised recommendations