Toward objective classification of childhood autism: Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS)

  • Eric Schopler
  • Robert J. Reichler
  • Robert F. DeVellis
  • Kenneth Daly


School Psychology Childhood Autism Objective Classification Childhood Autism Rate Scale 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Creak, M. Schizophrenia syndrome in childhood: Progress report of a working party.Cerebral Palsy Bulletin, 1961,3, 501–504.Google Scholar
  2. Creak, M. Schizophrenic syndrome in childhood: Further progress of a working party.Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology, 1964,6, 530–535.Google Scholar
  3. Goldfarb, W., Receptor preferences in schizophrenic children.Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 1956,76, 643–652.Google Scholar
  4. Hermelin, B. A., & O'Connor, N.Psychological experiments with autistic children. Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1970.Google Scholar
  5. Hollingshead, A., & Redlich, F.Social class and mental illness. New York: Wiley, 1958.Google Scholar
  6. Kanner, L. Autistic disturbances of affective contact.Nervous Child, 1943,2, 217–250.Google Scholar
  7. Lotter, V. Epidemiology of autistic conditions in young children. I. Prevalence.Social Psychiatry, 1966,1, 124–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Lovaas, O. I. Contrasting illness and behavioral models for the treatment of autistic children: A historical perspective.Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 1979,9, 315–323.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Nunnally, J.Psychometric theory. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1967.Google Scholar
  10. Ornitz, E. M., & Ritvo, E. R. Perceptual inconstancy in early infantile autism.Archives of General Psychiatry, 1968,18, 76–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Reichler, R. J., & Schopler, E. Observations on the nature of human relatedness.Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 1971,1, 283–296.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Rimland, B.Infantile autism. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1964.Google Scholar
  13. Rimland, B. The differentiation of childhood psychoses: An analysis of checklists for 2,218 psychotic children.Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 1971,1, 161–174.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Ritvo, E. R., & Freeman, B. J. National Society for Autistic Children definition of autism.Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 1978,8, 162–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Rutter, M. Diagnosis and definition of childhood autism.Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 1978,8, 139–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Schopler, E. Early infantile autism and receptor processes.Archives of General Psychiatry, 1965,13, 327–335.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Schopler, E., & Reichler, R. J. Parents as cotherapists of psychotic children.Journal of Autism and Childhood Schizophrenia, 1971,1, 87–102.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Schopler, E., & Reichler, R. J.Individualized assessment and treatment for autistic and developmentally delayed children. Volume I, psychoeducational profile. Baltimore: University Park Press, 1979.Google Scholar
  19. Schopler, E., Rutter, M., & Chess, S. Editorial: Change in journal scope and title.Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 1979,9, 1–10.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Schreibman, L., & Lovaas, O. I. Overselective response to social stimuli by autistic children.Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 1973,1, 152–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Wing, L. Social, behavioral and cognitive characteristics: An epidemiological approach. In M. Rutter & E. Schopler (Eds.),Autism: A reappraisal of concepts and treatment. New York: Plenum Press, 1978.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Plenum Publishing Corporation 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eric Schopler
    • 1
  • Robert J. Reichler
    • 2
  • Robert F. DeVellis
    • 1
  • Kenneth Daly
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry, School of MedicineUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel HillChapel Hill
  2. 2.University of WashingtonSeattle, Washington

Personalised recommendations