Environmental Management

, Volume 18, Issue 2, pp 183–201 | Cite as

State wetlands and riparian area protection programs

  • Frederick Steiner
  • Scott Pieart
  • Edward Cook
  • Jacqueline Rich
  • Virginia Coltman

Abstract

The protection of wetlands and riparian areas has emerged as an important environmental planning issue. In the United States, several federal and state laws have been enacted to protect wetlands and riparian areas. Specifically, the federal Clean Water Act includes protection requirements in Sections 301 and 303 for state water quality standards, Section 401 for state certification of federal actions (projects, permits, and licenses), and Section 404 for dredge and fill permits. The Section 401 water quality state certification element has been called the “sleeping giant” of wetlands protection because it empowers state officials to veto or condition federally permitted or licensed activities that do not comply with state water quality standards. State officials have used this power infrequently. The purpose of this research was to analyze the effectiveness of state wetland and riparian programs. Contacts were established with officials in each state and in the national and regional offices of key federal agencies. Based on interviews and on a review of federal and state laws, state program effectiveness was analyzed. From this analysis, several problems and opportunities facing state wetland protection efforts are presented.

Key words

Wetlands Riparian areas Environmental policy Clean water legislation and programs 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Blumm, M. C. 1980. The Clean Water Act's Section 404 permit program enters its adolescence: An institutional and programmatic perspective.Ecology Law Quarterly 8(3):409–472.Google Scholar
  2. Blumm, M. C., and D. B. Zaleha. 1989. Federal wetlands: Protection under the Clean Water Act: Regulatory ambivalence, intergovernmental tension, and a call for reform.University of Colorado Law Review 60(4):695–772.Google Scholar
  3. Brinson, M. M., L. Swift, C. Plantico, and S. Barclay. 1981. Riparian ecosystems: Their ecology and status. FWS/OBS-81/17. US Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC, 152 pp.Google Scholar
  4. Brown, S., M. M. Brinson, and A. E. Lugo. 1978. Structure and function of riparian wetlands. Pages 17–31in R. R. Johnson and J. F. McCormick, technical coordinators. Strategies for protection and management of floodplain wetlands and other riparian ecosystems: Proceedings. USDA, FS, GTR-WO-12. US Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  5. Brown, S. 1988. Wetland protection guidebook. Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Land and Water Management Division, Lansing, Michigan, 14 pp.Google Scholar
  6. Chester County Planning Commission. 1987. Wetlands. Chester County Planning Commission Bulletin 33. West Chester, Pennsylvania, 14 pp. plus appendices.Google Scholar
  7. Cooper, D., K. Mutz, B. Van Daveren, A. Allen, and G. Jacob. 1990. Intermountain riparian lands evaluation methodology (draft). US Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC, 87 pp.Google Scholar
  8. Cox, W. E. 1989. Managing Virginia's coastal wetlands: Local/state/federal interaction. Pages 535–542in D. W. Fisk (ed.), Wetlands: Concerns and successes. American Water Resources Association, Bethesda, Maryland.Google Scholar
  9. Dahl, T. E. 1990. Wetlands losses in the United States 1780s to 1980s. US Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC, 13 pp.Google Scholar
  10. Department of Environmental Protection. 1990. Wetlands compensation, A policy proposal. Inland Water Resources Management Division in cooperation with the Commissioner's Task Force on Wetlands Compensation, Hartford, Connecticut, 4 pp.Google Scholar
  11. Environmental Reporter. 1990. Federal wetland conservation policy may collide with constitutional rights 21(19):377–378.Google Scholar
  12. Fulton, B. 1991. The wetlands morass.Planning 57(8):12–16.Google Scholar
  13. Gosselink, J. G., and E. Maltby. 1990. Wetland losses and gains. Pages 296–322in M. Williams (ed.), Wetlands, A threatened landscape. Basil Blackwell, Oxford, U.K.Google Scholar
  14. Governor's Freshwater Wetlands Roundtable. 1989. Freshwater wetlands in Delaware: A framework for their conservation, protection and management. Dover, Delaware, 12 pp.Google Scholar
  15. Griffin, C. R. 1989. Protection of wildlife habitat by state wetland regulations: The Massachusetts initiative. Pages 22–31in R.E. McCabe (ed.), Transactions 54th North American Wildlife and Natural Resource Conference. Wildlife Management Institute, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  16. Jacobs, S. L. 1987. Strengthening wetland protection programs through state regulation.University of California-Davis Law Review 21:227–270.Google Scholar
  17. Kansas Water Office. 1990. Kansas water plan summary, Fish wildlife and recreation section. Summary Sheet No. 5, September. Topeka, Kansas, pp. 29–32.Google Scholar
  18. Klein, K. C., and R. Freed. 1989. Implementing the Massachusetts Wetlands Protection Act—the local perspective. Pages 499–507in D. W. Fisk (ed.),Wetlands: Concerns and successes. American Water Resources Association, Bethesda, Maryland.Google Scholar
  19. Kusler, J. A. 1985. A call for action: Protection of riparian habitat in the arid and semi-arid west. Pages 6–8in R. R. Johnson, C. D. Ziebell, D. R. Patton, P. F. Ffollion, and R. N. Hamre (eds.), Riparian ecosystems and their management: Reconciling their uses. US Forest Service, Tucson, Arizona.Google Scholar
  20. Lawson, S. 1991. Under stress.Landscape Architecture 81(10):76–78.Google Scholar
  21. Leslie, M., and E. H. Clark, II. 1990. Perspectives on wetland loss and alterations. Pages 1–21in G. Bingham, E. H. Clark, II, L. V. Haygood, and M. Leslie (eds.), Issues in wetlands protection: Background papers prepared for national wetlands policy forum. The Conservation Foundation, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  22. Lowe, C. H. (ed.). 1964. The vertebrates of Arizona. University of Arizona Press, Tucson, Arizona, 259 pp.Google Scholar
  23. Lowry, K. 1985. Assessing the implementation of federal coastal policy.Journal of the American Planning Association 51(3):288–298.Google Scholar
  24. Mazmanian, D. A., and P. Sabatier (eds.). 1981. Effective policy implementation. Lexington Books, Lexington, Massachusetts, 220 pp.Google Scholar
  25. McCormick, J. F. 1978. A summary of the national riparian symposium: A proposal for a national riparian program. Pages 362–363in R. R. Johnson and J. F. McCormick, technical coordinators. Strategies for protection and management of floodplain wetlands and other riparian ecosystems: Proceedings. USDA, FS, GTR-WO-12. US Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  26. Meeks, G., Jr., and L. C. Runyon. 1990. Wetlands protection and the states. National Conference of State Legislatures, Denver, Colorado, 26 pp.Google Scholar
  27. Michigan, State of 80th Legislature. 1979. Act 203, Goemaere-Anderson Wetland Protection Act.Google Scholar
  28. Monroe, S. 1991. Arizona riparian area initiative. Paper. Soil and Water Conservation Society, Ankeny, Iowa.Google Scholar
  29. North Carolina Environmental Defense Fund. 1989. Carolina wetlands: Our vanishing resource. Raleigh, North Carolina, 88 pp. plus appendices.Google Scholar
  30. North Dakota State Engineer. 1989. Drainage rules. Bismarck, North Dakota, 31 pp.Google Scholar
  31. Odum, E. P. 1978. Ecological importance of the riparian zone. Pages 2–4in R. R. Johnson and J. F. McCormick, technical coordinators. Strategies for protection and management of floodplain wetlands and other riparian ecosystems: Proceedings. USDA, FS, GTR-WO-12. US Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  32. Ohmart, R. D., and B. W. Anderson. 1986. Riparian habitat. Pages 164–199in B. S. Cooperider (ed.), Inventorying and monitoring of wildlife habitat. US Bureau of Land Management, Denver, Colorado.Google Scholar
  33. Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources and US Army Corps of Engineers. 1987. Instruction booklet for commonwealth of Pennsylvania and US Army Corps of Engineers joint permit application. Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, 43 pp.Google Scholar
  34. Ransel, K., and E. Meyers. 1988. State water quality certification and wetland protection: A call to awaken the sleeping giant.Virginia Journal of Natural Resources Law 7(2):339–379.Google Scholar
  35. Rapoport, S. 1986. The taking of wetlands under Section 404 of the Clean Water Act.Environmental Law 17(1):111–124.Google Scholar
  36. Reilly, W. K. 1991. A new way with wetlands.Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 46(3):192–194.Google Scholar
  37. Salvesen, D. 1990. Wetlands, mitigating and regulating developmental impacts. ULI, The Urban Land Institute, Washington, DC, 177 pp.Google Scholar
  38. Sansbury, C. E. 1990. Regulation of wetlands in South Carolina. South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control, Columbia.Google Scholar
  39. van Schilfgaarde, J. 1991. Water futures.Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 46(1):17–19.Google Scholar
  40. Sharp, G. A. 1987. The “no feasible and prudent alternative test” increased protection for Connecticut's wetlands and watercourses. Council on Environmental Quality, Hartford, Connecticut, pp. 9–11.Google Scholar
  41. South Carolina Coastal Council and US Army Corps of Engineers, Charleston District. No date. Developer's handbook for freshwater wetlands. Charleston, South Carolina.Google Scholar
  42. Steiner, F. 1990. Soil conservation in the United States. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, 249 pp.Google Scholar
  43. Steiner, F., S. Pieart, and E. Cook. 1991. The interrelationship between federal and state wetlands and riparian protection programs. Arizona Department of Environmental Quality, Phoenix, 116 pp. plus tables.Google Scholar
  44. Strong, A. L. 1987. Judicial decisions affecting state and local regulations of floodplains, wetlands, and river corridors (unpublished manuscript). Department of City and Regional Planning, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 28 pp.Google Scholar
  45. Symms, S. 1991. In defense of private property.Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 46(4):244.Google Scholar
  46. Tiner, R. W. 1984. Wetlands of the United States: Current states and recent trends. US Fish and Wildlife Service, Washington, DC, 58 pp.Google Scholar
  47. US Department of the Interior. 1988. A report to Congress by the Secretary of Interior. The impact of federal programs on wetlands. Vol. I: The lower Mississippi alluvial plain and prairie pothole region. Washington, DC, 114 pp.Google Scholar
  48. US Department of Interior. 1990. Riparian-wetland initiatives for the 1990s. Bureau of Land Management, Washington, DC, 50 pp.Google Scholar
  49. US Environmental Protection Agency. 1988. America's wetlands: Our vital link between land and water. Office of Wetlands Protection, Office of Water, Washington, DC, 9 pp.Google Scholar
  50. US Environmental Protection Agency. 1989. Wetlands and 401 certification opportunities and guidelines for states and Indian tribes. Washington, DC, 64 pp.Google Scholar
  51. US General Accounting Office. 1988. Wetlands, The Corps of Engineers' Administration of the Section 404 program. Washington, DC, 122 pp.Google Scholar
  52. Want, W. L. 1990. Law of wetlands regulation. (also 1992 revised edition). Clark Boardman Company, New York.Google Scholar
  53. Water Resources Unit. 1989. Wetland protection in Connecticut. Department of Environmental Protection, Hartford, Connecticut, 64 pp.Google Scholar
  54. Williams, M. 1990. Understanding wetlands. Pages 1–41in M. Williams (ed.), Wetlands, A threatened landscape. Basil Blackwell, Oxford, UK.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag New York Inc 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frederick Steiner
    • 1
  • Scott Pieart
    • 1
  • Edward Cook
    • 1
  • Jacqueline Rich
    • 1
  • Virginia Coltman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PlanningArizona State UniversityTempeUSA

Personalised recommendations