, Volume 18, Issue 4, pp 793–813

Social relations in a free-ranging troop of stumptail macaques (Macaca arctoides): Male-care behaviour I

  • Alejandro Estrada
  • Juan M. Sandoval

DOI: 10.1007/BF02382931

Cite this article as:
Estrada, A. & Sandoval, J.M. Primates (1977) 18: 793. doi:10.1007/BF02382931


The occurrence of male-care behaviour directed from juvenile and adult males to infants was studied in a free-ranging troop of Stumptail macaques. The study period lasted two months comprising about 140 hours of recorded observations.

Infants were a focal subgroup and their interactions with older males were recorded. The following variables were examined in relationship to the sending and receiving of male-care: the infant (its age, sex, and dominance rank), older males (their age and dominance rank), and genetic ties.

Infants I received more male-care than infants II and differences in the type of male-care received by infants I and II were found. Male infants received more male-care than female infants and sex differences in the type of care received were evident. No relationship was found between the infant’s dominance rank and the amount of male-care received. A substantial amount of male-care behaviour was sent to genetic kin.

Two-three year olds displayed more male care than yearlings. Juveniles as a class displayed more male-care than adults. A positive association was found between the juveniles’ dominance rank and the sending of male-care. However, among the adults, the subordinate male displayed more care behaviour than the alpha male. The presence or absence of the mother was found to influence the older males’ interest in the infant. The results are discussed and compared with data available on other primate species.

Copyright information

© Japan Monkey Centre 1977

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alejandro Estrada
    • 1
  • Juan M. Sandoval
    • 2
  1. 1.Instituto de Investigaciones BiomédicasU. N. A. M.México 20, D. F.
  2. 2.El Departmento de la Etnología y la Antropología SocialI. N. A. H., Convento del CarmenMéxico 20, D. F.

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