A group of pigtailed macaques was given the opportunity to use a rod to reach otherwise unavailable food. Initial solution by one group member resulted from trial and error but subsequent solutions by others were accelerated by three types of observation learning: social facilitation, stimulus enhancement, and imitative copying. The greater capacity of macaques for observation learning may explain the greater incidence of tool behavior and subcultural phenomena among macaques than among other cercopithecines.
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