Primates

, Volume 35, Issue 3, pp 369–374

Grooming site preferences in wild white-handed gibbons (Hylobates lar)

  • Ulrich Reichard
  • Volker Sommer
Short Communication

Abstract

During a four-month study of wild white-handed gibbons in Thailand one group was observed for 131 hr. The individuals spent 5.2% of their activity period allogrooming. Several body sites received more respectively less allogrooming than expected. Surface areas easy to clean by autogrooming such as the belly received significantly less allogrooming than expected. Upper body areas which are likely to be infested by parasites and other matter received significantly more allogrooming than lower body parts. Thus, grooming in gibbons seems to reflect a primarily hygienic function.

Key Words

Gibbon Allogrooming Site preferences Hygienic function 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Altmann, J., 1974. Observational study of behavior: sampling methods.Behaviour, 49: 227–267.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Barton, R., 1985. Grooming site preferences in primates and their functional implications.Int. J. Primatol., 6: 519–532.Google Scholar
  3. Boccia, M. L., 1983. A functional analysis of social grooming patterns through direct comparison with self-grooming in rhesus monkeys.Int. J. Primatol., 4: 399–418.Google Scholar
  4. —, 1989. Comparison of the physical characteristics of grooming in two species of macaques (Macaca nemestrina andMacaca radiata).J. Comp. Psychol., 103: 177–183.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Borries, C., 1992. Grooming site preferences in female langurs (Presbytis entellus).Int. J. Primatol., 13: 19–32.Google Scholar
  6. Brockelman, W. Y. &S. Srikosamatara, 1984. Maintenance and evolution of social structure in gibbons. In:The Lesser Apes: Evolutionary and Behavioural Biology,H. Preuschoft,D. J. Chivers,W. Y. Brockelman, &N. Creel (eds.), Edinburgh Univ. Press, Edinburgh, pp. 298–323.Google Scholar
  7. Carpenter, C. R., 1940. A field study in Siam of the behavior and relations of the gibbon (Hylobates lar).Comp. Psychol. Monogr., 16: 1–212.Google Scholar
  8. —, 1942. Sexual behaviour of free ranging rhesus monkeys,Macaca mulatta.J. Comp. Psychol., 33: 113–142.Google Scholar
  9. Dunbar, R. I. M., 1991. Functional significance of social grooming in primates.Folia Primatol., 57: 121–131.Google Scholar
  10. Ellefson, J. O., 1968. Territorial behaviour in the common white-handed gibbon,Hylobates lar Linné. In:Primates: Studies in Adaptation and Variability,P. C. Jay (ed.), Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, pp. 180–199.Google Scholar
  11. Goosen, C., 1987. Social grooming in primates. In:Comparative Primate Biology, Vol. 2, Part B: Behavior, Cognition and Motivation,G. Mitchell &J. Erwin (eds.), Alan R. Liss, New York, pp. 107–131.Google Scholar
  12. Hutchins, M. &D. P. Barash, 1976. Grooming in primates: implications for its utilitarian function.Primates, 17: 145–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Raemaekers, J. J. &P. M. Raemaekers, 1984. Vocal interaction between two male gibbons,Hylobates lar.Nat. Hist. Bull. Siam. Soc., 32: 95–106.Google Scholar
  14. Reichard, U., 1991. Zum Sozialverhalten einer Gruppe freilebender Weißhandgibbons (Hylobates lar). M. Sc. thesis, Univ. of Göttingen, Göttingen.Google Scholar
  15. Rowell, T. E., C. Wilson, &M. Cords, 1991. Reciprocity and partner preference in grooming of blue monkeys.Int. J. Primatol., 12: 319–336.Google Scholar
  16. Schultz, A. H., 1929. The technique of measuring the outer body of human fetuses and of primates in general.Contrib. Embryol., 20: 213–257.Google Scholar
  17. —, 1930. The skeleton of the trunk and limbs of higher primates.Human Biol., 2: 303–438.Google Scholar
  18. —, 1933a. Observations on the growth, classification and evolutionary specialization of gibbons and siamangs.Human Biol., 5: 212–228.Google Scholar
  19. —, 1933b. Die Körperproportionen der erwachsenen catarrhinen Primaten, mit spezieller Berücksichtigung der Menschenaffen.Anthropol. Anz., 10: 154–185.Google Scholar
  20. —, 1944. Age changes and variability in gibbons: a morphological study on a population sample of a man-like ape.Amer. J. Phys. Anthropol., 2: 1–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. —, 1953. The relative thickness of the long bones and the vertebrae in primates.Amer. J. Phys. Anthropol., 11: 227–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Seyfarth, R. M., 1977. A model of social grooming among adult female monkeys.J. Theor. Biol., 65: 671–698.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Sparks, J., 1967. Allogrooming in primates: a review. In:Primate Ethology,D. Morris (ed.), Weidenfeld & Nicolson, London, pp. 148–175.Google Scholar
  24. Takahashi, L. K., 1990. Morphological basis of arm-swinging: multivariate analyses of forelimbs ofHylobates andAteles.Folia Primatol., 54: 70–85.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Terry, R. L., 1970. Primate grooming as a tension reduction mechanism.J. Psychol., 76: 129–136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Yerkes, R. M., 1933. Genetic aspects of grooming, a socially important primate behavior.J. Soc. Psychol., 4: 3–25.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Japan Monkey Centre 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ulrich Reichard
    • 1
  • Volker Sommer
    • 2
  1. 1.Institut für Anthropologie der Georg-August-UniversitätGöttingenGermany
  2. 2.Department of AnthropologyUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA

Personalised recommendations