Advertisement

Primates

, Volume 31, Issue 4, pp 459–468 | Cite as

Decisions on time allocation to different food patches by Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata)

  • Naofumi Nakagawa
Article

Abstract

From the standpoint of the possible development of an optimal foraging strategy, the time allocation to different food patches and the decision as to when to leave any given patch were examined in wild Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata). The investigations yielded the following results: (1) There was no tendency for feeding bouts to be of longer duration in higher-quality patches, i.e. the monkeys did not employ an energy-maximizing strategy during their feeding bouts. (2) The speed of feeding barely decreased with passage of time during a bout. In most cases, therefore, a decrease in feeding speed was not considered relevant to the decision to leave a patch. These findings are evaluated in terms of social factors, and it appears that following a monkey's own family group or the troop usually contributes to the timing of leaving a food patch.

Key Words

Optimal foraging strategy Time allocation to food patches Timing of leaving food patch Macaca fuscata 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Altmann, J., 1974. Observational study of behavior: sampling method.Behaviour, 49: 227–265.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Chapman, C., 1988. Patch use and patch depletion by the spider and howling monkeys of Santa Rosa National Park, Costa Rica.Behaviour, 105: 99–116.Google Scholar
  3. Charnov, E. L., 1976. Optimal foraging, the marginal value theorem.Theor. Popul. Biol., 9: 129–136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Hashizume, H., M. Sugawara, Y. Nagae, &M. Higuchi, 1984. Production and dispersal of reproductive organs in seed stands of Buna (Fagus crenata Blume). (I) Production and dispersal of seeds.Bull. Fac. Agric., Tottori Univ., 36: 35–42.Google Scholar
  5. Iwasa, Y., 1981.Seibutsu no tekiosenryaku: sosiobaioroji-teki shiten karano suriseibutsugaku (Biological Aspects of Optimal Strategy: Mathematical-biology from a Sociobiological Point of View), Saiensusha, Tokyo. (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  6. Krebs, J. R., 1978. Optimal foraging: decision rules for predators. In:Behavioural Ecology: An Evolutionary Approach,J. R. Krebs &N. B. Davies (eds.), Blackwell Scientific, Oxford, pp. 23–63.Google Scholar
  7. Maruhashi, T., 1986. Feeding ecology of Japanese monkeys in Yakushima Island. In:The Wild Japanese Monkeys on Yakushima Island,T. Maruhashi,J. Yamagiwa, &T. Furuichi (eds.), Tokai Daigaku Shuppankai, Tokyo, pp. 13–59. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  8. McNair, J. N., 1982. Optimal giving-up times and the marginal value theorem.Amer. Naturalist, 119: 511–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Nakagawa, N., 1989. Feeding strategies of Japanese monkeys against deterioration of habitat quality.Primates, 30: 1–16.Google Scholar
  10. ——, 1990. Choice of food patches by Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata).Amer. J. Primatol., 21: 17–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Pyke, G. H., H. R. Pulliam, &E. L. Charnov, 1977. Optimal foraging: a selective review of theory and tests.Q. Rev. Biol., 52: 137–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Schoener, T. W., 1971. The theory of feeding strategies.Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 2: 369–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Stephens, D. W. &J. R. Krebs, 1986.Foraging Theory. Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  14. Whitten, P. L., 1988. Effects of patch quality and feeding subgroup size on feeding success in vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops).Behaviour, 105: 35–52.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Japan Monkey Center 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Naofumi Nakagawa
    • 1
  1. 1.Primate Research InstituteKyoto UniversityInuyama, AichiJapan

Personalised recommendations