Advertisement

Primates

, Volume 24, Issue 3, pp 344–359 | Cite as

Socio-ecological study ofPresbytis aygula in West Java

  • Yayat Ruhiyat
Article

Abstract

Field studies of the Sunda Island leaf monkey,Presbytis aygula, were made in the montane forests of West Java at an altitude of 1,400–1,800 m between September 1976 and August 1981. The troop size ofP. aygula varied from 3 to 12 animals and the population density was about 35 animals/km2 in Patenggang and 11–12 animals/km2 in Kamojang. They were organized essentially in one male troops, though the troops in the Patenggang area usually consisted of only an adult pair and its offspring. Home range size was about 14 ha in Patenggang and about 35–40 ha in Kamojang. Some of those ranges overlapped with each other. The differences between these two areas were considered to be the result of recent habitat destruction and human impact in Patenggang. Animals spent more time in resting than other activities during a day.P. aygula in Java, consumed mainly leaves, eating less fruits and other parts of plants. Troop cohesion was tight, but social interactions between troop members were rather infrequent. The patterns of intertroop encounters and vocal sounds were described.

Keywords

Population Density Social Interaction Range Size Field Study Home Range 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aldrich-Blake, F. P. G., 1970. Problems in social structure in forest monkeys. In:Social Behaviour in Birds and Mammals,J. H. Crook (ed.), Academic Press, London, pp. 79–101.Google Scholar
  2. Baldwin L. A., M. Kavanagh &G. Teleki, 1975. Field research on langur and proboscis monkeys: An historical, geographical and bibliographical listing.Primates, 16: 351–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bishop, N. H., 1979. Himalayan langurs: temperate colobines.J. Human Evol., 8: 251–281.Google Scholar
  4. Boggess, J., 1980. Intermale relations and troop male membership changes in langurs (Presbytis entellus) in Nepal.Int. J. Primatol., 1: 233–274.Google Scholar
  5. Brotoisworo, E., 1979. The lutung (Presbytis cristata) in Pangandaran Nature Reserve: social adaptation to space. Ph.D. thesis, Kyoto University, Kyoto.Google Scholar
  6. Chivers, D. J., 1974.The Siamang in Malaya. Contributions to Primatology, Vol. 4, S. Karger, Basel.Google Scholar
  7. Clutton-Brock, T. H., 1974. Primate social organization and ecology.Nature (London), 250: 539–542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. ————, &P. H. Harvey, 1977. Some aspects of intraspecific variation in feeding and ranging behavior in Primates In:Primate Ecology: Studies of Feeding and Ranging Behaviour in Lemurs, Monkeys and Apes,T. H. Clutton-Brock (ed.), Academic Press, London, pp. 557–584.Google Scholar
  9. Curtin, S. H., 1976. Niche separation in sympatric Malaysian leaf monkeys (Presbytis obscura andP. melalophos).Ybk. Phys. Anthropol., 20: 421–439.Google Scholar
  10. ————, 1980. Dusky and banded leaf monkeys. In:Malayan Forest Primates,D. J. Chivers (ed.), Plenum Press, London, pp. 107–145.Google Scholar
  11. Eisenberg, J. F., N. A Muckenhirn &R. Rudran, 1972. The relation between ecology and social structure in primates.Science, 176: 863–874.Google Scholar
  12. Hladik, C. M. &H. Hladik, 1972. Disponibilités alimentaires et domaines vitaux des primates a Ceylan.Terre et la Vie, 2: 149–215.Google Scholar
  13. Hoogerwerf, A. A., 1970.Udjung Kulon, the Land of Last Javan Rhinoceros. E. J. Brill, Leiden.Google Scholar
  14. Hrdy, S. B., 1977.The Langurs of Abu. Female and Male Strategies of Reproduction. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  15. Institute of Ecology, 1979.Report on Water Analysis and Environmental Impact Analysis of Kamojang Geothermal Plant, West Java. A Report to Perusahaan Umum Listrik Negara I, Padjadjaran Univ., Bandung.Google Scholar
  16. Jay, P. C., 1965. The common langur of north India. In:Primate Behavior: Field Studies of Monkeys and Apes,I. DeVore (ed.), Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, pp. 197–249.Google Scholar
  17. Kawamura, S., 1979. Social life ofPresbytis melalophos in Sumatra. In:A Comparative Socio-ecological Study on Coloboid Monkeys in Tropical Asia. Report of Overseas Scientific Survey in 1976–1978, Primate Research Institute, Kyoto Univ., Inuyama, pp. 1–13.Google Scholar
  18. Medway, L., 1970. The monkeys of Sundaland: Ecology and systematics of the Cercopithecids of a humid equatorial environment. In:Old World Monkeys,J. R. Napier &P. H. Napier (eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 513–553.Google Scholar
  19. Mohnot, S. M., 1971. Some aspects of social changes and infant-killing in the Hanuman langur,Presbytis entellus (Primates: Cercopithecidae), in Western India.Mammalia, 35: 175–198.Google Scholar
  20. Pocock, R. I., 1928. The langurs, or leaf monkeys, of British India.J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 32: 472–677.Google Scholar
  21. ----, 1934. The monkeys of the generaPithecus (orPresbytis) andPygathrix found to the east of the Bay of Bengal.Proc. Zool. Soc. London, pp. 895–961.Google Scholar
  22. Ripley, S., 1967. Intertroop encounters among Ceylon gray langurs (Presbytis entellus). In:Social Communication Among Primates,S. A. Altmann (ed.), Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 237–257.Google Scholar
  23. Rodman, P. S., 1973. Synecology of Bornean primates: I. A test for interspecific interactions in spatial distribution of five species.Amer. J. Phys. Anthropol., 38: 655–659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Rudran, R., 1973. Adult male replacement in one male troops of purple faced langurs (Presbytis senex senex) and its effect on population structure.Folia Primatol., 19: 166–192.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Sugiyama, Y., 1964. Group composition, population density and some sociological observations of Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus).Primates, 5 (3–4): 7–38.Google Scholar
  26. ————, 1965. On the social change of Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus) in their natural condition.Primates, 6: 381–418.Google Scholar
  27. ————,K. Yoshiba &M. D. Parthasarathy, 1965. Home range, breeding season, male group and intertroop relation in Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus).Primates, 6: 73–106.Google Scholar
  28. ————, 1967. Social organization of Hanuman langurs. In:Social Communication Among Primates,S. A. Altmann (ed.), Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 221–236.Google Scholar
  29. ————, 1976. Characteristic of the ecology of the Himalayan langurs.J. Human Evol., 5: 249–277.Google Scholar
  30. Tilson, R. T. &R. R. Tenaza, 1976. Monogamy and duetting in an Old World monkey.Nature, 263: 320–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Vogel, C., 1971. Behavioral differences ofPresbytis entellus in two different habitats.Proc. 3rd. Int. Congr. Primatol., Zurich, 1970, 3: 41–47.Google Scholar
  32. ————, 1973. Acoustical communication among free ranging common Indian langurs (Presbytis entellus) in two different habitats of North India.Amer. J. Phys. Anthropol., 38(2): 469–480.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Watanabe, K., 1981. Variations in group composition and population density of the two sympatric Mentawaian leaf monkeys.Primates, 22: 145–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wilson, C. C. &W. L. Wilson, 1975. The influence of selective logging on primates and some other animals in East Kalimantan.Folia Primatol., 23: 245–274.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. ———— & ————, 1976. Behavior and morphological variations among primate populations in Sumatra.Ybk. Phys. Anthropol., 20: 207–233.Google Scholar
  36. Yoshiba, K., 1967. An ecological study of Hanuman langurs (Presbytis entellus).Primates, 8: 127–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. ————, 1968. Local and intertroop variability in ecology and social behavior of common Indian langurs. In:Primates: Studies in Adaptation and Variability,P. Jay (ed.), Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York., pp. 217–242.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Japan Monkey Centre 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yayat Ruhiyat
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of EcologyPadjadjaran University, J1. SekeloaBandungIndonesia

Personalised recommendations