Reactions of a group of pygmy chimpanzees (Pan paniscus) to their mirror-images: Evidence of self-recognition
- 142 Downloads
A group of seven pygmy chimpanzees (Pan paniscus) was tested for their mirror-image reactions during a ten-day experiment. The time spent viewing the mirror waned quickly. Little social responses directed towards the mirror were observed. Self-directed behaviors were shown from testday one on. It was concluded that four out of seven animals could correctly identify their mirror-image, one infant was not (yet) able to do so, and for two other individuals the results were inconclusive.
Key WordsSelf-recognition Pygmy chimpanzee Pan paniscus Mirror
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Anderson, J. R., 1983. Responses to mirror-image stimulation and assessment of self-recognition in mirror- and peer-reared stumptail macaques.Quart. J. Exp. Psychol., 35B: 201–212.Google Scholar
- ————, 1984. Monkeys with mirrors: some questions for primate psychology.Int. J. Primatol., 5(1): 81–98.Google Scholar
- Gallup, G. G., Jr., 1970. Chimpanzees: self-recognition.Science, 167: 86–87.Google Scholar
- ———— &S. D. Suarez, 1986. Self-awareness and the emergence of mind in humans and other primates. In:Psychological Perspectives on the Self, Vol. 3,J. Suls &A. G. Greenwald (eds.), Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, New York, pp. 3–26.Google Scholar
- Hyatt, C. W. &W. D. Hopkins, 1994. Self-awareness in bonobos and chimpanzees: a comparative perspective. In:Self-awareness in Animals and Humans: Developmental Perspectives,S. Parker,M. Boccia, &R. Mitchell (eds.), Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, pp. 248–253.Google Scholar
- Itakura, S., 1987a. Mirror guided behavior in Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata fuscata).Primates, 28: 149–161.Google Scholar
- ————, 1987b. Use of a mirror to direct their responses in Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata fuscata).Primates, 28: 343–352.Google Scholar
- Mitchell, R. W., 1993. Mental models of mirror-self-recognition: two theories.New ideas Psychol., 11(3): 295–325.Google Scholar
- Povinelli, D., 1987. Monkeys, apes, mirrors and minds: the evolution of self-awareness in primates.Human Evol., 2(6): 493–509.Google Scholar
- Savage-Rumbaugh, E. S., 1986.Pan paniscus andPan troglodytes: contrasts in preverbal communicative competence. In:The Pygmy Chimpanzees: Evolutionary Biology and Behavior,R. L. Susman (ed.), Plenum Press, New York, pp. 395–414.Google Scholar
- Suarez, S. D. &G. Gallup, 1981. Self-recognition in chimpanzees and orangutans, but not gorillas.J. Human Evol., 10: 175–188.Google Scholar