, Volume 36, Issue 1, pp 145–150 | Cite as

Reactions of a group of pygmy chimpanzees (Pan paniscus) to their mirror-images: Evidence of self-recognition

  • Vera Walraven
  • Linda van Elsacker
  • Rudolf Verheyen
Short Communication


A group of seven pygmy chimpanzees (Pan paniscus) was tested for their mirror-image reactions during a ten-day experiment. The time spent viewing the mirror waned quickly. Little social responses directed towards the mirror were observed. Self-directed behaviors were shown from testday one on. It was concluded that four out of seven animals could correctly identify their mirror-image, one infant was not (yet) able to do so, and for two other individuals the results were inconclusive.

Key Words

Self-recognition Pygmy chimpanzee Pan paniscus Mirror 


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Copyright information

© Japan Monkey Centre 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Vera Walraven
    • 1
  • Linda van Elsacker
    • 2
  • Rudolf Verheyen
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiologyUniversity of AntwerpWilrijkBelgium
  2. 2.Royal Zoological Society AntwerpAntwerpBelgium

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