Plant and Soil

, Volume 98, Issue 1, pp 17–23

Weed control using allelopathic sunflowers and herbicide

  • Gerald R. Leather
Article

Summary

Field studies were conducted to determine if season long weed control could be achieved by combining the use of an herbicide with the natural allelochemicals produced by cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). The weed biomass was reduced equally in plots planted with sunflowers, whether or not the herbicide was applied in each of 4 years. Weed control diminished the second year in all plots that received the same treatments as had been applied the previous year. This diminished efficacy was attributed to reduced emergence of sunflower (13.5 to 45.2 percent) in second-year plots, as a result of autotoxicity from sunflower crop residues remaining after the first-year harvest.

Key words

Allelopathy Autotoxicity Sunflower yield Weed biomass 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Altieri M A and Doll J D 1978 The potential of allelopathy as a tool for weed management in crop fields. PANS 24, 495–502.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bhowmik P C and Doll J D 1982 Corn and soybean response to allelopathic effects of weed and crop residues. Agron. J. 74, 601–602.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bhowmik P C and Doll J D 1984 Allelopathic effects of annual weed residues on growth and nutrient uptake of corn and soybeans. Agron. J. 76, 383–388.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chou C-H and Lin H-J 1976 Autointoxication mechanism ofOryza sativa. I. Phytotoxic effects of decomposing rice residues in soil. J. Chem. Ecol. 2, 353–367.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Cochran V L, Elliott L F and Papendick R I 1977 The production of phytotoxins from surface crop residues. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 41, 903–908.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cooper W S and Stoesz A D 1931 The subterranean organs ofHelianthus scaberrimus. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 58, 67–72.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Curtis J T and Cottam G 1950 Antibiotic and autotoxic effects in prairie sunflower. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 77, 187–191.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Einhellig F A 1985 Effects of allelopathic chemicals on crop productivity. pp 109–130In Bioregulators for Pest Control. Ed. P Hedin. A C S Symposium Series 276. Am. Chem. Soc. Washington D C.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Goldsmith F B and Harrison C M 1976 Description and analysis of vegetation.In Methods in Plant Ecology Ed. SB Chapman pp 85–155. Halsted Press. John Wiley and Sons. New York.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hall A B, Blum U and Fites R C 1982 Stress modification of allelopathy ofHelianthus annuus L. debris on seed germination. Am. J. Bot. 69, 776–783.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Irons S M and Burnside O C 1982 Competitive and allelopathic effects of sunflower (Helianthus annuus). Weed Sci. 30, 372–377.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Koeppe D E, Southwick L M and Bittell J E 1976 The relationship of tissue chlorogenic acid concentrations and leaching of phenolics from sunflowers grown under varying phosphate nutrient conditions. Can. J. Bot. 54, 593–599.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Leather G R 1983 Sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) are allelopathic to weeds. Weed Sci. 31, 37–42.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Leather G R 1983 Weed control using allelopathic crop plants. J. Chem. Ecol. 9, 983–989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Menges R M and Tamez S 1981 Common sunflower (Helianthus annuus) interference in onions (Allium cepa). Weed Sci. 29, 641–647.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Nelson S H and Fedec P 1982 Inhibitory effects of confection sunflower hulls. HortScience 17, 887–888.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Putnam A R and Duke W B 1978 Allelopathy in agroecosystems. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 16, 431–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Putnam A R, Defrank J and Barnes J P 1983 Exploitation of allelopathy for weed control in annual and perennial cropping systems. J. Chem. Ecol. 9, 1001–1010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Schon M K and Einhellig F A 1982 Allelopathic effects of cultivated sunflower on grain sorghum. Bot. Gaz. 143, 505–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wilson R E and Rice E L 1968 Allelopathy as expressed byHelianthus annuus and its role in old-field succession. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 95, 432–448.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff Publishers 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gerald R. Leather
    • 1
  1. 1.Foreign Disease-Weed Science ResearchUSDA-ARSFrederickUSA

Personalised recommendations