, Volume 17, Issue 1, pp 43–51 | Cite as

Long-term effects of social rehabilitation in rhesus monkeys

  • Mark S. Cummins
  • Stephen J. Suomi


A group of 19 rhesus monkeys was assembled and observed in a large outdoor pen. Five experimental groups were present: 3-year-old mother-peer reared monkeys, surrogate-rehabilitated isolates, socially-rehabilitated isolates, surrogate-peers (who had served as “therapists” for the preceding group), and 1-year-old mother-peers. The major results indicated first, that the surrogate-rehabilitated isolates played socially significantly less than both mother-peer groups, and second, that the group as a whole seemed to display an abnormally low overall level of behavior. Possible interpretations and theoretical implications are discussed.


Rhesus Monkey Animal Ecology Major Result Theoretical Implication Preceding Group 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bernstein, I. S. &W. A. Draper, 1964. The behavior of juvenile rhesus monkeys in groups.Anim. Behav., 12: 92–96.Google Scholar
  2. ———— &W. A. Mason, 1963. Activity patterns of rhesus monkeys in a social group.Anim. Behav., 11: 445–460.Google Scholar
  3. Blomquist, A. J. &H. F. Harlow, 1961. The infant rhesus monkey program at the University of Wisconsin Primate Laboratory.Proc. Anim. Care Panel, 11: 57–64.Google Scholar
  4. Cross, H. A. &H. F. Harlow, 1965. Prolonged and progressive effects of partial isolation on the behavior of macaque monkeys.J. Exp. Res. Pers., 1: 39–49.Google Scholar
  5. Cummins, M. S., 1973. Behavioral stability of rhesus monkeys following differential rearing. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Wisconsin.Google Scholar
  6. Harlow, H. F., 1969. Age-mate or peer affectional system. In:Advances in the Study of Behavior,D. S. Lehrman,R. A. Hinde, &E. Shaw (eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 333–383.Google Scholar
  7. ———— &M. K. Harlow, 1962. The effect of rearing conditions on behavior.Bull. Menninger Clinic, 26: 213–224.Google Scholar
  8. ———— & ————, 1971. Psychopathology in monkeys. In:Experimental Psychopathology: Recent Research and Theory,H. D. Kimmel (ed.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 203–229.Google Scholar
  9. ———— &S. J. Suomi, 1970. The nature of love—simplified.Amer. Psychol., 25: 161–168.Google Scholar
  10. Kirk, R. E., 1968.Experimental Design: Procedures for the Behavioral Sciences. Brooks-Cole, Belmont, California.Google Scholar
  11. Mitchell, G. D. &D. L. Clark, 1968. Long-term effects of social isolation in nonsocially adapted rhesus monkeys.J. Genet. Psychol., 313: 117–128.Google Scholar
  12. ————,E. J. Raymond, G. C. Ruppenthal, &H. F. Harlow, 1966. Long-term effects of total social isolation upon behavior of rhesus monkeys.Psychol. Rep., 18: 567–580.Google Scholar
  13. Pratt, C. L., 1967. Social behavior of rhesus monkeys reared with varying degrees of peer experience. Unpublished master's thesis, University of Wisconsin.Google Scholar
  14. ----, 1969. Effect of different degrees of early stimulation on social development. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Wisconsin.Google Scholar
  15. Rowland, G. L., 1964. The effect of total social isolation upon learning and social behavior in the rhesus monkey. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Wisconsin.Google Scholar
  16. Sackett, G. P., 1968. The persistence of abnormal behavior in monkeys following isolation rearing. In:The Role of Learning in Psychotherapy,R. Porter (ed.), J. & A. Churchill, London, pp. 3–25.Google Scholar
  17. Siegel, S.,Nonparametric Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences. McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  18. Southwick, C. H., 1967. An experimental study of intragroup agonistic behavior in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).Behaviour, 28: 182–209.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Suomi, S. J., 1973. Surrogate rehabilitation of monkeys reared in total social isolation.J. Child Psychol. Psychiat., 14: 71–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. ———— &H. F. Harlow, 1969. Apparatus conceptualization for psychopathological research in monkeys.Behav. Res. Meth. Instru., 1: 247–250.Google Scholar
  21. ———— & ————, 1971. Monkeys at play.Nat. Hist., 80: 72–76.Google Scholar
  22. ———— & ————, 1972. Social rehabilitation of isolate-reared monkeys.Dev. Psychol., 6: 487–496.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Japan Monkey Centre 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark S. Cummins
    • 2
    • 1
  • Stephen J. Suomi
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyMcGrill UniversityMontrealCanada
  2. 2.Department of Psychology, Primate LaboratoryUniversity of WisconsinMadisonU. S. A.

Personalised recommendations