Advertisement

Primates

, Volume 35, Issue 1, pp 49–55 | Cite as

The fate of defeated alpha male chimpanzees in relation to their social networks

  • Shigeo Uehara
  • Mariko Hiraiwa-Hasegawa
  • Kazuhiko Hosaka
  • Miya Hamai
Article

Abstract

Usurpation of alpha status by males is a relatively rare event among wild chimpanzees in the Mahale Mountains National Park, western Tanzania, where long-term field studies have been carried out since 1965. Here we report three such cases and compare the fate of those defeated alpha males. The formation of effective alliances with other adult males is considered to be crucial in determining what will happen to the defeated alpha male in the rank order after the loss of his status.

Key Words

Chimpanzee Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii Alpha male Coalition Alliance Rank order 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Altmann, J., 1974. Observational study of behavior: sampling methods.Behaviour, 49: 227–267.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Chapais, B., 1988. Rank maintenance in female Japanese macaques: experimental evidence for social dependency.Behaviour, 104: 41–59.Google Scholar
  3. ————, 1992. The role of alliances in social inheritance of rank among female primates. In:Coalitions and Alliances in Humans and Other Animals,A. H. Harcourt &F. B. M. de Waal (eds.), Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, pp. 29–59.Google Scholar
  4. Datta, S. B., 1983a. Relative power and the acquisition of rank. In:Primate Social Relationships: An Integrated Approach,R. A. Hinde (ed.), Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, pp. 93–103.Google Scholar
  5. ————, 1983b. Relative power and the maintenance of dominance. In:Primate Social Relationships: An Integrated Approach,R. A. Hinde (ed.), Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, pp. 103–112.Google Scholar
  6. Goodall, J., 1986.The Chimpanzees of Gombe: Patterns of Behavior. The Belknap Press of Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  7. ————, 1992. Unusual violence in the overthrow of an alpha male chimpanzee at Gombe. In:Topics in Primatology, Vol. 1: Human Origins,T. Nishida,W. C. McGrew,P. Marler,M. Pickford, &F. B. M. de Waal (eds.), Univ. of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, pp. 131–142.Google Scholar
  8. Harcourt, A. H. &K. J. Stewart, 1987. The influence of help in contests on dominance rank in primates: hints from gorillas.Animal Behav., 35: 182–190.Google Scholar
  9. ———— &F. B. M. de Waal (eds.), 1992.Coalitions and Alliances in Humans and Other Animals. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  10. Hasegawa, T., 1990. Sex differences in ranging patterns. In:The Chimpanzees of the Mahale Mountains: Sexual and Life History Strategies,T. Nishida (ed.), Univ. of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, pp. 100–114.Google Scholar
  11. Kawanaka, K., 1984. Association, ranging, and the social unit in chimpanzees of the Mahale Mountains, Tanzania.Int. J. Primatol., 5: 411–434.Google Scholar
  12. ————, 1990. Alpha male's interactions and social skills. In:The Chimpanzees of the Mahale Mountains: Sexual and Life History Strategies,T. Nishida (ed.), Univ. of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, pp. 171–187.Google Scholar
  13. Nishida, T., 1979. The social structure of chimpanzees of the Mahale Mountains. In:The Great Apes,D. A. Hamburg &E. R. McCown (eds.), Benjamin/Cummings, Menlo Park, pp. 73–121.Google Scholar
  14. ————, 1983. Alpha status and agonistic alliance in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii).Primates, 24: 318–336.Google Scholar
  15. ————, 1988. Development of social grooming between mother and offspring in wild chimpanzees.Folia Primatol., 50: 109–123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. ————, 1990. A quarter century of research in the Mahale Mountains: an overview. In:The Chimpanzees of the Mahale Mountains: Sexual and Life History Strategies,T. Nishida (ed.), Univ. of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, pp. 3–35.Google Scholar
  17. Riss, D. C. &J. Goodall, 1977. The recent rise to the alpha-rank in a population of free-living chimpanzees.Folia Primatol., 27: 134–151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Takahata, Y., 1986. The chimpanzees of the Mahale Mountains National Park, Tanzania: their ecology and sociology. In:Anthropology of Natural Societies in Africa,J. Itani &J. Tanaka (eds.), Akademia-Shuppankai, Kyoto, pp. 7–41. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  19. de Waal, F. B. M., 1982.Chimpanzee Politics: Power and Sex among Apes. Jonathan Cape, London.Google Scholar
  20. ————, 1986. The brutal elimination of a rival among captive male chimpanzees.Ethol. Sociobiol., 7: 237–251.Google Scholar
  21. ————, 1989,Peacemaking among Primates. Harvard Univ. Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts.Google Scholar
  22. ————, 1992. Appeasement, celebration, and food sharing in the twoPan species. In:Topics in Primatology, Vol. 1: Human Origins,T. Nishida,W. C. McGrew,P. Marler,M. Pickford, &F. B. M. de Waal (eds.), Univ. of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, pp. 37–50.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Japan Monkey Centre 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shigeo Uehara
    • 1
  • Mariko Hiraiwa-Hasegawa
    • 2
  • Kazuhiko Hosaka
    • 3
  • Miya Hamai
    • 4
  1. 1.Faculty of General EducationSapporo UniversitySapporo, HokkaidoJapan
  2. 2.Institute of Natural ScienceSenshu UniversityKawasaki, KanagawaJapan
  3. 3.Department of Zoology, Faculty of ScienceKyoto UniversityKyotoJapan
  4. 4.The University of TokyoJapan

Personalised recommendations