, Volume 23, Issue 1, pp 105–129 | Cite as

Mandible/basihyal relationships in red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus): A craniometrical approach

  • Tsuyoshi Watanabe


The morphological relationships between the cranium and basihyal of red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus) were analyzed based on measurements of 36 cranial and 3 basihyal dimensions and observations of the female specimen in spirits. In this study, 115 crania from 111 red howler monkeys and 4 mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata) were used. The analyses from the standpoints of the correlation coefficients, principal component analysis, discriminant function analysis, age changes and sex differences were performed and the following results were obtained: (1) The cranial measurements closely related to the basihyal measurements were mandibular length, occipital breadth, facial length, ramus height, cranial base length, bigonial breadth and pr-i length. (2) Age changes for the mandibular measurements in males of red howler monkeys were remarkable, and, in particular, the development of the gonion toward posterior and lateral directions were characteristic. (3) The largest sex differences were found in the mandibular measurements of red howler monkeys among the Anthropoidea of seven genera compared. (4) The existence of a “cline” in the cranial measurements of the red howler monkey was recognized. (5) The inter-species differences in the crania between the red howler monkey and mantled howler monkey are obvious, metrically and non-metrically.

Based on the results mentioned above, the morphological relationships between the mandible and basihyal in the red howler monkey are discussed.


Discriminant Function Analysis Cranial Base Base Length Howler Monkey Morphological Relationship 
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Copyright information

© Japan Monkey Centre 1982

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tsuyoshi Watanabe
    • 1
  1. 1.Primate Research InstituteKyoto UniversityAichiJapan

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