Primates

, Volume 37, Issue 4, pp 399–409

Distribution and deployment ofPresbytis melalophos group in Sumatera, Indonesia

  • Mitsuru Aimi
  • Amsir Bakar
Article

Abstract

Pelage color and pattern, facial markings, cranial morphology, and vocalization have been studied comparatively in thePresbytis melalophos group in Sumatera. Pelage coloration of fetuses and neonates were described forP. melalophos andP. femoralis. Based on this study, three species —P. thomasi, P. melalophos, andP. femoralis — are recognized. Using field data that have been gathered since 1981, the distribution of these three species has been mapped. The resultant map reveals that no sympatry is known and that rivers form the interspecific boundaries. However, rivers apparently are not barriers to the dispersal of species in this group. Instead, distributions appear to be limited ecologically, by competitive exclusion. Historically, it appears that the ancestral stock initially dispersed throughout this area, then theP. melalophos stock split from theP. thomasi-P. femoralis stock, theP. thomasi stock split from theP. femoralis stock, and, finally, theP. femoralis stock dispersed to eastern Sumatera. It appears unlikely that the centrifugal speciation hypothesis based on the principle of metachromism applies to deployment of theP. melalophos group.

Key Words

Presbytis melalophos Presbytis femoralis Presbytis thomasi Distribution Sumatera Metachromism Neonate pelage coloration 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aimi, M.;Bakar, A. 1992. Taxonomy and distribution ofPresbytis melalophos group in Sumatera, Indonesia.Primates, 33: 191–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Batchelor, B. C. 1979. Discontinuously rising late Cainozoic eustatic sea-levels, with special reference to Sundaland, Southeast Asia.Geol. Mijnbouw, 58: 1–20.Google Scholar
  3. Bennett, E. L.;Davies, A. G. 1994. The ecology of Asian colobines. In:Colobine Monkeys: Their Ecology, Behaviour and Evolution,Davies,A. G.;Oates,J. F. (eds.), Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, pp. 129–171.Google Scholar
  4. Blasco, F.;Laumonier, Y.;Purnajaya, 1983. Tropical vegetation mapping: Sumatera.Biotrop. Bull. Tropical Biol., No. 22: 1–60.Google Scholar
  5. Brandon-Jones, D. 1977. The evolution of recent Asian Colobinae. In:Recent Advances in Primatology, Vol. 3,Chivers,D. J.;Joysey,K. A. (eds.), Academic Press, London, pp. 323–325.Google Scholar
  6. Chasen, F. N. 1940. A handlist of Malaysian mammals.Bull. Raffles Mus., 15: 1–209.Google Scholar
  7. Corbet, G. B.;Hill, J. E. 1992.The Mammals of the Indomalayan Region. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  8. Francis, P. 1983. Giant volcanic calderas.Sci. Amer., 248 (6): 46–56.Google Scholar
  9. Groves, C. P. 1989.A Theory of Human and Primate Evolution. Clarendon Press, Oxford.Google Scholar
  10. Gurmaya, K. J. 1989. Ecology, behavior and sociality ofThomas' leaf monkey in north Sumatra. In:Comparative Primatology Monographs, No. 2,Ehara, A.; Kawamura, S. (eds.), Kyoto, pp. 53–170.Google Scholar
  11. Hershkovitz, P. 1968. Metachromism or the principle of evolutionary change in mammalian tegumentary colors.Evolution, 22: 556–575.Google Scholar
  12. Hershkovitz, P. 1977.Living New World Monkeys (Platyrrhini) with an Introduction to Primates, Vol. 1. Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  13. Hooijer, D. A. 1962. Quaternary langurs and macaques from the Malay archipelago.Zool. Verhandelingen, 55: 1–64.Google Scholar
  14. Kawamura, S. 1984. Distribution and vocalization ofPresbytis melalophos andP. femoralis varieties in Westcentral Sumatra: a summarized report.Kyoto Univ. Overseas Res. Rep. Studies Asian Non-human Primates, 3: 37–44.Google Scholar
  15. Mayr, E.;Ashlock, P. D. 1991.Principles of Systematic Zoology (2nd ed.). McGraw-Hill, New York.Google Scholar
  16. Medway, L. 1970. The monkeys of Sundaland: ecology and systematics of the cercopithecids of a humid equatorial environment. In:Old World Monkeys: Evolution, Systematics and Behavior,Napier,J. R.;Napier,P. H. (eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 513–553.Google Scholar
  17. Megantara, E. N. 1989. Ecology, behavior and sociality ofPresbytis femoralis in eastcentral Sumatra. In:Comparative Primatology Monographs, No. 2,Ehara, A.; Kawamura, S. (eds.), Kyoto, pp. 171–301.Google Scholar
  18. Napier, P. H. 1985.Catalogue of Primates in the British Museum (Natural History) and Elsewhere in the British Isles. Part III: Family Cercopithecidae, Subfamily Colobinae. British Museum (Natural History), London.Google Scholar
  19. Oates, J. F.;Davies, A. G.;Delson, E. 1994. The diversity of living colobines. In:Colobine Monkeys: Their Ecology, Behaviour and Evolution,Davies,A. G.;Oates,J. F. (eds.), Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, pp. 45–73.Google Scholar
  20. Pocock, R. I. 1935. The monkeys of the genusPithecus (orPresbytis) andPygathrix found to the east of the Bay of Bengal.Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., (1934): 895–961.Google Scholar
  21. Tjia, H. D. 1980. The Sunda Shelf, Southeast Asia.Z. Geomorph., 24: 405–427.Google Scholar
  22. Whitten, A. J.;Damanik, S. J.;Anwar, J.;Hisyam, N. 1984.The Ecology of Sumatra. Gadjah Mada Univ. Press, Yogyakarta.Google Scholar
  23. Wilson, C. C.;Wilson, W. L. 1977. Behavioral and morphological variation among primate populations in Sumatra.Ybk. Phys. Anthropol., 20: 207–233.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Japan Monkey Centre 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mitsuru Aimi
    • 1
  • Amsir Bakar
    • 2
  1. 1.Primate Research InstituteKyoto UniversityAichiJapan
  2. 2.FMIPA, Andalas University, LimaumanisPadangIndonesia

Personalised recommendations