Further studies on predation by chimpanzees of the Mahale Mountains
- 61 Downloads
Chimpanzees of the M-group in the Mahale Mountains, Tanzania, were seen to commit predation 15 times between May 1978 and July 1979. The data appear to suggest that they come to perform predation frequently in recent years. However, for evaluating long-term changes in their predatory disposition, several factors must be considered, such as changes in research formation, in the degree of habituation of the chimpanzees and in the influence of humans on prey animals. These factors should be also considered when the findings of various populations are compared.
It seems that an adult male can more easily control his desire for exclusive possession of meat than that of plant-food. Adult males have priority over females in obtaining meat, but all of the former cannot join the meat-eating cluster. Besides the dominance rank, dyadic relationships between them may regulate whether an adult male can join it. This suggests that all adult males in a unit-group may not be tied by an equal bond.
The evolutionary implications of chimpanzee predation are discussed on the basis of the assumption that both chimpanzee predation and human hunting originated in some habit of a common ancestor.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Busse, C. D., 1977. Chimpanzee predation as a possible factor in the evolution of red colobus monkey social organization.Evolution, 31: 907–911.Google Scholar
- Goodall, J., 1963. Feeding behaviour of wild chimpanzees: A preliminary report.Sym. Zool. Soc. Lond., 10: 39–47.Google Scholar
- ————, 1968. The behaviour of free-living chimpanzees in the Gombe Stream Reserve.Anim. Behav. Monogr., 1: 163–311.Google Scholar
- ————, 1971.In the Shadow of Man. Collins, London.Google Scholar
- ————, 1973. The behaviour of the chimpanzees in their natural habitat.Amer. J. Psychiat., 130: 1–12.Google Scholar
- ————, 1977. Infant killing and cannibalism in free-living chimpanzees.Folia Primatol., 28: 258–282.Google Scholar
- Itani, J., 1974. African great apes: A comparative study of ecology and social structure and their future problems.Africa-Kenkyu, 14: 1–13. (in Japanese with English summary)Google Scholar
- ————, 1977.Savanna Woodland of Chimpanzees: In Search of a Logic of Wildness. Heibonsha, Tokyo. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
- ————, 1980. Social structure of African great apes.J. Reprod. Fert., Suppl., 28: 33–41.Google Scholar
- Kawanaka, K., 1981. Infanticide and cannibalism in chimpanzees, with special reference to the newly observed case in the Mahale Mountains.Afr. Stud. Monogr., 1: 69–99.Google Scholar
- McGrew, W. C., 1975. Patterns of plant food sharing by wild chimpanzees. In:Contemporary Primatology,S. Kondo,M. Kawai &A. Ehara (eds.), S. Karger, Basel, pp. 304–309.Google Scholar
- ————, 1979. Evolutionary implications of sex difference in chimpanzee predation and tool use. In:The Great Apes,D. A. Hamburg &E. R. McCown (eds.), Benjamin/Cummings, Menlo Park, pp. 441–463.Google Scholar
- ————, 1974. Ecology of wild chimpanzees. In:Human Ecology,R. Ohtsuka,J. Tanaka &T. Nishida (eds.), Kyoritsu-shuppan, Tokyo, pp. 15–60. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
- ————, 1977a. Social structure of chimpanzees. In:Anthropology, Vol. 2, Primates,J. Itani (ed.), Yuzankaku, Tokyo, pp. 273–314. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
- ————, 1977b. Chimpanzee anting behavior and its eco-evolutionary significance. In:Anthropology, Vol. 12, Ecology,H. Watanabe (ed.), Yuzankaku, Tokyo, pp. 55–84. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
- ————, 1978. Revolution at the lake shore.Tembo, No. 232: 103–124. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
- ————, 1979. The social structure of chimpanzees of the Mahale Mountains. In:The Great Apes,D. A. Hamburg &E. R. McCown (eds.), Benjamin/Cummings, Menlo Park, pp. 73–121.Google Scholar
- ————, 1980. On chimpanzee culture.Kagaku, 50: 146–154. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
- Pfeiffer, J. E., 1969.The Emergence of Man. Harper & Row, New York.Google Scholar
- Schaller, G. B. &G. R. Lowther, 1969. The relevance of carnivore behavior to the study of early hominids.Southwest J. Anthropol., 25: 307–341.Google Scholar
- Sugiyama, Y., 1981.Society of Wild Chimpanzees: Process of Human Evolution. Kodansha, Tokyo. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
- Suzuki, A., 1971. Carnivority and cannibalism among forest-living chimpanzees.J. Anthropol. Soc. Nippon, 79: 30–48.Google Scholar
- ————, 1975. The origin of hominid hunting: A primatological perspective. In:Socioecology and Psychology of Primates,R. Tuttle (ed.), Mouton, The Hague, pp. 259–278.Google Scholar
- Teleki, G., 1973.The Predatory Behavior of Wild Chimpanzees. Bucknell Univ. Press, Lewisburg.Google Scholar
- ————, 1975. Primate subsistence patterns: Collector-predators and gatherer-hunters.J. Human Evol., 4: 125–184.Google Scholar
- Woodburn, J. C., 1968. An introduction to Hadza ecology. In:Man the Hunter,R. B. Lee &I. DeVore (eds.), Aldine, Chicago, pp. 49–55.Google Scholar