Primates

, Volume 22, Issue 4, pp 533–550 | Cite as

Anterior dental microwear and its relationship to diet and feeding behavior in three african primates (Pan troglodytes troglodytes, Gorilla gorilla gorilla andPapio hamadryas)

  • Alan S. Ryan
Article

Abstract

Anterior dental microwear is shown to be related to diet and to feeding habits in three groups of extant African primates includingPan troglodytes troglodytes, Gorilla gorilla gorilla andPapio hamadryas. Five distinct types of incisal microwear are found in these groups. These include: fine wear striae, polish, small pits, large pits and microflakes. It is demonstrated that each species exhibits a different set of microwear types. Chimpanzees exhibit extensive pitting, mesiodistally oriented fine wear striae and small areas of polish, features of microwear that are probably related to the husking of hard fruit skins and the occasional stripping of leaves. Gorillas show large areas of polish, small pits and labiolingually oriented wear striae, a combination of features that may be associated with the stripping of leaves and pith. Baboons show extensive edge damage involving clusters of large pits and microflakes; this set of microwear types may be related to the initial chewing of gravel-laden seeds, roots and rhizomes. Microwear found on the canine/premolar complex of all three groups corresponds to the puncture-crushing and to the slicing of food.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Ahlgren, J., 1966. Mechanisms of mastication.Acta Odontol. Scand. Suppl., 44: 1–109.Google Scholar
  2. Altmann, S. A. &J. Altmann, 1970.Baboon Ecology. S. Karger, New York.Google Scholar
  3. Boucher, C. O., 1963.Current Clinical Dental Terminology. C. V. Mosby Co., St. Louis.Google Scholar
  4. Butler, P. M. &J. R. E. Mills, 1959. A contribution to the odontology ofOreopithecus.Bull. Brit. Mus. Nat. Hist. (Geology), 4: 3–26.Google Scholar
  5. Covert, H. H. &R. E. Kay, 1981. Dental microwear and diet: Implications for Determining the feeding behaviors of extinct primates, with a comment on the dietary pattern ofSivapithecus.Amer. J. Phys. Anthropol., 55: 331–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Crompton, A. W. &K. M. Hiiemae, 1970. Molar occlusion and mandibular movements during occlusion in the American opossum,Didelphis marsupialis. Zool. J. Linn. Soc., 49: 21–47.Google Scholar
  7. Crook, J. H. &P. Aldrich-Blake, 1968. Ecological and behavioural contrasts between sympatric ground dwelling primates in Ethiopia.Folia Primatol., 8: 192–227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. DeVore, I. &S. L. Washburn, 1963. Baboon ecology and human evolution. In:African Ecology and Human Evolution,F. C. Howell &F. Bourlière (eds.), Viking Fund, Chicago, pp. 335–367.Google Scholar
  9. Dunbar, R. I. M., 1976. Australopithecine diet based on a baboon analogy.J. Human Evol., 5: 161–167.Google Scholar
  10. Goodall, J., 1963. Feeding behaviour of wild chimpanzees. In:Primates,J. Napier &N. A. Barnicot (eds.), Academic Press, New York, pp. 39–47.Google Scholar
  11. ————, 1965. Chimpanzees of the Gombe Stream Reserve. In:Primate Behavior,I. DeVore (ed.), Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, pp. 425–473.Google Scholar
  12. ————, 1968. The behaviour of free-living chimpanzees in the Gombe Stream Reserve.Anim. Behav. Monog., 1: 161–311.Google Scholar
  13. Hiiemae, K. M. &A. W. Crompton, 1971. A cinefluorographic study of feeding in the American opossum,Didelphis marsupialis. In:Dental Morphology and Evolution,A. A. Dahlberg (ed.), Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 299–334.Google Scholar
  14. Jones, C. &J. Sabater Pí, 1971.Comparative Ecology of Gorilla gorilla (Savage and Wyman)and Pan troglodytes (Blumenbach)in Rio Muni, West Africa. Bibliotheca Primatologica, No. 13, S. Karger, London.Google Scholar
  15. Kay, R. F., 1973. Mastication, molar tooth structure and diet in primates. Ph.D. dissertation, Yale Univ., New Haven, Connecticut.Google Scholar
  16. ————, 1975. The functional adaptations of primate molar teeth.Amer. J. Phys. Anthropol., 43: 195–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. ————, 1977. The evolution of molar occlusion in the Cercopithecidae and early Catarrhines.Amer. J. Phys. Anthropol., 46: 327–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. ———— &K. M. Hiiemae, 1974a. Jaw movements and tooth use in recent and fossil primates.Amer. J. Phys. Anthropol., 40: 227–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. ———— &K. M. Hiiemae, 1974b. Mastication inGalago crassicaudatus, a cinefluorographic and occlusal study. In:Prosimian Biology,R. D. Martin,G. A. Doyle &A. C. Walker (eds.), Duckworth, London, pp. 501–530.Google Scholar
  20. Kortland, A., 1962. Observing chimpanzees in the wild.Sci. Amer., 206: 128–138.Google Scholar
  21. Kummer, H., 1957. Soziales verhalten einer mantelpavin.Gruppe Schweizzeitsch. Psychol., No. 33.Google Scholar
  22. ————, 1968.Social Organization of Hamadryas Baboons. Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  23. ————, 1971.Primate Societies: Group Techniques of Ecological Adaptation. Aldine, Chicago.Google Scholar
  24. Merfield, F. G. &H. Miller, 1956.Gorilla Hunter. Farra, Straus & Cudahy, New York.Google Scholar
  25. Mills, J. R. E., 1955. Ideal dental occlusion in the primates.Dent. Practner., 6: 47–61.Google Scholar
  26. Nishida, T. &S. Uehara, 1980. Chimpanzees, tools and termites: Another example from Tanzania.Cur. Anthropol., 21: 671–672.Google Scholar
  27. Reynolds, V., 1965.Budongo, an African Forest and Its Chimpanzees. Natural History Press, New York.Google Scholar
  28. ————, 1967.The Apes: The Gorilla, Chimpanzee, Orangutan and Gibbon. E. P. Dutton, New York.Google Scholar
  29. ———— &F. Reynolds, 1965. Chimpanzees of the Budongo Forest. In:Primate Behavior,I. DeVore (ed.), Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, pp. 368–424.Google Scholar
  30. Ryan, A. S., 1979a. A preliminary scanning electron microscope examination of wear striation direction on primate teeth.J. Dent. Res., 58: 525–530.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. ————, 1979b. Wear striation direction on primate teeth: A scanning electron microscope examination.Amer. J. Phys. Anthropol., 50: 155–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. ————, 1979c. Tooth sharpening in primates.Cur. Anthropol., 20: 121–122.Google Scholar
  33. ————, 1980. Anterior dental microwear in hominoid evolution: Comparisons with human and nonhuman primates. Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan.Google Scholar
  34. Sabater Pi, J., 1966a. Rapport préliminaire sur l'alimentation dans la nature gorilles du Rio Muni (Ouest Africain).Mammalia, 30: 235–240.Google Scholar
  35. ————, 1966b. Gorilla attacks against humans in Rio Muni, West Africa.J. Mammal., 47: 123–124.Google Scholar
  36. Schaller, G. B., 1976.The Mountain Gorilla: Ecology and Behavior. The Univ. of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  37. St. Hoyme, L. E. &R. T. Koritzer, 1971. Significance of canine wear in pongid evolution.Amer. J. Phys. Anthropol., 35: 145–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Suzuki, A., 1969. An ecological study of chimpanzees in a savanna woodland.Primates, 10: 103–148.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Swindler, D. R., 1976.Dentition of Living Primates. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  40. Teleki, G., 1974. Chimpanzee subsistence technology: Materials and skills.J. Human Evol., 3: 575–594.Google Scholar
  41. ————, 1975. Primate subsistence patterns: Collector-predators and gatherer-hunters.J. Human Evol., 4: 125–184.Google Scholar
  42. Walker, A., 1979. SEM analysis of microwear and its correlation with dietary patterns.Amer. J. Phys. Anthropol., 50: 489. (Abstract).Google Scholar
  43. Walker, P. L., 1976. Wear striations on the incisors of Cercopithecid monkeys as an index of diet and habitat preference.Amer. J. Phys. Anthropol., 45: 299–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Washburn, S. L. &R. L. Ciochon, 1974. Canine teeth: Notes on controversies in the study of human evolution.Amer. Anthropol., 76: 765–784.Google Scholar
  45. Weier, T. E., C. R. Stocking &M. G. Barbour, 1970.Botany: An Introduction to Plant Biology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York.Google Scholar
  46. Wrangham, R. W., 1975. The behavioural ecology of chimpanzees in Gombe National Park, Tanzania. Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. of Cambridge, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  47. Zingeser, M. R., 1969. Cercopithecoid canine tooth honing mechanisms.Amer. J. Phys. Anthropol., 31: 205–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Zuckerman, S., 1932.Social Life of Monkeys and Apes. Harcourt & Brace, New York.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Japan Monkey Centre 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alan S. Ryan
    • 1
  1. 1.Center for Human Growth and DevelopmentThe University of MichiganAnn ArborU.S.A.

Personalised recommendations