Marmosets have reduced second molars of which size and shape are varied in different species. Mesiodistal and buccolingual diameter of the first and second upper molars in 16 species were measured, and molar area (molar rectangle) and M2 reduction index were calculated by the equation,R=(M2 area/M1 area) × 100. This index ranged from 36.1 inSaguinus oedipus geoffroyi to 70.6 which was the largest found inCebuella pygmaea. Species ofSaguinus showed relatively wide variation as well as a consistantly smaller index. The index forCallithrix registered around 60 andLeontopithecus rosalia was positioned within this genus. There was no relationship between this index and body size of each form. The sizes of the first molar and second molar may not significantly correlate either with body size across species, becauseLeontopithecus rosalia had exceptionally large molars for its body size and contrarily genusSaguinus had relatively small molars. When the shape of the mandible was expressed as length/width ratio, the reduction index significantly correlate with this ratio in genusSaguinus andCallithrix, indicating that longer jaw in shape had relatively large M2. The reduction indices of two possible subspecies,S. oedipus geoffroyi andS. o. oedipus, were 36.1 and 47.3, respectively. This difference suggested that there was a difference in diet or function of jaw apparatus beyond subspecies level.