Primates

, Volume 31, Issue 3, pp 323–338 | Cite as

Predator avoidance behaviour in the buffy-headed marmoset,Callithrix flaviceps

  • Stephen Francis Ferrari
  • Maria Aparecida Lopes Ferrari
Article

Abstract

The predator avoidance behaviour of a free-ranging group of buffy-headed marmosets,Callithrix flaviceps, was recorded in detail during the course of a long-term study of behavioural ecology at the Fazenda Montes Claros, southeastern Brazil. Four distinct patterns of predator avoidance behaviour, each with specific vocalisations, were recognised and are described here. The selection and use of sleeping sites by the study group are also described. An analysis of the records indicates that these small monkeys are generally most vulnerable to predation by aerial raptors. Variations in the frequency of alarm calls also indicate that the marmosets tend to be more vigilant at higher levels in the forest and when the leaf cover is less extensive. The implications of group size and social structure for both the evolution and the efficacy of the anti-predator behaviour of marmosets are also discussed.

Key Words

Callitrichids Callithrix flaviceps Behaviour Predator avoidance 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Altmann, J., 1974. Observational study of behavior: sampling methods.Behaviour, 49: 227–265.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Alonso, C. &A. Langguth, 1989. Ecologia e Comportamento deCallithrix jacchus (Primates: Callitrichidae) numa ilha de Floresta Atlântica.Rev. Nordestina Biol., 6: 105–137.Google Scholar
  3. Bartecki, U. &E. W. Heymann, 1987. Field observation of snake-mobbing in a group of saddleback tamarins,Saguinus fuscicollis nigrifrons.Folia Primatol., 48: 199–202.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Boinski, S. &P. E. Scott, 1988. Association of birds with monkeys in Costa Rica.Biotropica, 20: 136–143.Google Scholar
  5. Caine, N. G., 1984. Visual scanning by tamarins: a description of the behavior and tests of two derived hypotheses.Folia Primatol., 43: 59–67.Google Scholar
  6. ————, 1986. Visual monitoring of threatening objects by captive tamarins (Saguinus labiatus).Amer. J. Primatol., 10: 1–8.Google Scholar
  7. ————, 1987. Vigilance, vocalizations and cryptic behavior at retirement in captive groups of redbellied tamarins (Saguinus labiatus).Amer. J. Primatol., 12: 241–250.Google Scholar
  8. ———— &S. L. Marra, 1988. Vigilance and social organization in two species of primates.Anim. Behav., 36: 897–904.Google Scholar
  9. Cheney, D. L. &R. M. Seyfarth, 1985. Vervet monkey alarm calls: manipulation through shared information?Behaviour, 94: 150–166.Google Scholar
  10. ———— &R. W. Wrangham, 1987. Predation. In:Primate Societies,B. B. Smuts,D. L. Cheney,R. M. Seyfarth,R. W. Wrangham, &T. T. Struhsaker (eds.), Univ. of Chicago Press, London, pp. 227–239.Google Scholar
  11. Cleveland, J. &C. T. Snowdon, 1982. The complex vocal repertoire of the adult cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus oedipus).Z. Tierpsychol., 58: 231–270.Google Scholar
  12. Clutton-Brock, T. H. &P. H. Harvey, 1977. Primate ecology and social organization.J. Zool. Soc. London, 183: 1–39.Google Scholar
  13. Coimbra-Filho, A. F., 1978. Natural shelters ofLeontopithecus rosalia and some ecological implications. In:The Biology and Conservation of the Callitrichidae,D. G. Kleiman (ed.), Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., pp. 79–89.Google Scholar
  14. Dawson, G. A., 1976. Behavioral ecology of the Panamanian tamarin,Saguinus oedipus. Unpubl. Ph.D. dissertation, Michigan State Univ., East Lansing.Google Scholar
  15. ————, 1979. The use of time and space by the Panamanian tamarinSaguinus oedipus.Folia Primatol., 31: 253–284.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Ferrari, S. F., 1988. The behaviour and ecology of the buffy-headed marmoset,Callithrix flaviceps (O. Thomas, 1903). Unpubl. Ph.D. thesis, Univ. College London.Google Scholar
  17. ----, in press. A foraging association between two kite species (Ictinea plumbea andLeptodon cayanensis) and buffy-headed marmosets (Callithrix flaviceps) in southeastern Brazil.Condor.Google Scholar
  18. ———— &M. A. Lopes Ferrari, 1989. A re-evaluation of the social organisation of the Callitrichidae, with reference to the ecological differences between genera.Folia Primatol., 52: 132–147.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Fontaine, R., 1980. Observations of the foraging association of double-toothed kites and whitefaced capuchin monkeys.Auk, 97: 94–98.Google Scholar
  20. Garber, P. A., 1988. Diet, foraging patterns, and resource defense in a mixed species troop ofSaguinus mystax andSaguinus fuscicollis in Amazonian Peru.Behaviour, 105: 18–34.Google Scholar
  21. Goldizen, A. W., 1987. Facultative polyandry and the role of infant-carrying in wild saddle-back tamarins (Saguinus fuscicollis).Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 20: 99–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hetherington, C. M., 1978. Circadian oscillations of body temperature in marmosets,Callithrix jacchus.Lab. Anim., 12: 107–108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Heymann, E. W., 1987. A field observation of predation on a moustached tamarin (Saguinus mystax) by an anaconda.Int. J. Primatol., 8: 193–195.Google Scholar
  24. Hladik, A. &C. M. Hladik, 1969. Rapports trophiques entre végétation et primates dans la forêt de Barro Colorado (Panama).Terre et Vie, 23: 25–117.Google Scholar
  25. Izawa, K., 1978. A field study of the ecology and behavior of the black-mantle tamarin (Saguinus nigricollis).Primates, 19: 241–274.Google Scholar
  26. Lindsay, N. B. D., 1979. A report on the field study of Geoffroy's tamarinSaguinus oedipus geoffroyi.Dodo. J. Jersey Wildl. Preserv. Trust, 16: 27–51.Google Scholar
  27. Masataka, N., 1983. Categorical responses to natural and synthesized alarm calls in Goeldi's monkeys (Callimico goeldii).Primates, 24: 40–51.Google Scholar
  28. Mendes, S. L., 1985. Uso de espaço, padrões de atividades diárias e organizações deAlouatta fusca (Primates, Cebidae) em Caratinga, MG. Unpubl. M. Sc. thesis, Univ. of Brasília.Google Scholar
  29. Mittermeier, R. A., A. B. Rylands, A. F. Coimbra-Filho, &G. A. Bouchardet oa Fonseca, 1988.Ecology and Behavior of Neotropical Primates, Vol. 2, World Wildlife Fund, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  30. Morrison, P. &J. Simões, Jr., 1962. Body temperature in two Brazilian primates.Bol. Fac. Fil., Ciên. Letr. Univ. S. Paulo 261 (Zoologia no. 24): 167–178.Google Scholar
  31. Moynihan, M., 1970. Some behavioral patterns of Platyrrhine monkeys. II.Saguinus geoffroyi and some other tamarins.Smiths. Contr. Zool., 28.Google Scholar
  32. ————, 1976.The New World Primates. Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  33. Neyman, P. F., 1978. Aspects of the ecology and social organization of free-ranging cotton-top tamarinsSaguinus oedipus and the conservation status of the species. In:The Biology and Conservation of the Callitrichidae,D. G. Kleiman (ed.), Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., pp. 39–71.Google Scholar
  34. Pola, Y. V. &C. T. Snowdon, 1975. The vocalizations of pygmy marmosets (Cebuella pygmaea).Anim. Behav., 23: 826–842.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Pook, A. G. &G. Pook, 1982. Polyspecific association betweenSaguinus labiatus, Callimico goeldii and other primates in north-western Bolivia.Folia Primatol., 38: 196–216.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. de Ruiter, J. R., 1986. The influence of group size on predator scanning and foraging behaviour of wedgecapped capuchin monkeys (Cebus olivaceus).Behaviour, 98: 240–258.Google Scholar
  37. Rylands, A. B., 1982. The behaviour and ecology of three species of marmosets and tamarins (Callitrichidae, Primates) in Brazil. Unpubl. Ph.D. thesis, Univ. of Cambridge.Google Scholar
  38. van Schaik, C. P., M. A. van Noordwijk, R. J. de Boer, &I. den Tonkelaar, 1983. The effect of group size on time budgets and social behaviour in wild long-tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis).Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 13: 173–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Soini, P., 1988. The pygmy marmosets, genusCebuella. In:Ecology and Behavior of Neotropical Primates, Vol. 2,R. A. Mittermeier,A. B. Rylands,A. F. Coimbra-Filho, &G. A. Bouchardet da Fonseca (eds.), World Wildlife Fund, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  40. Stevenson, M. F. &A. B. Rylands, 1988. The marmoset monkeys, genusCallithrix. In:Ecology and Behavior of Neotropical Primates, Vol. 2,R. A. Mittermeier,A. B. Rylands,A. F. Coimbra-Filho, &G. A. Bouchardet da Fonseca (eds.), World Wildlife Fund, Washington, D.C.Google Scholar
  41. Strier, K. B., 1987. Activity budgets of woolly spider monkeys, or muriquis (Brachyteles arachnoides).Amer. J. Primatol., 13: 385–395.Google Scholar
  42. Sussman, R. W. &W. G. Kinzey, 1984. The ecological role of the Callitrichidae: A review.Amer. J. Phys. Anthropol., 64: 419–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Terborgh, J., 1983.Five New World Primates: a Study in Comparative Ecology. Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, New Jersey.Google Scholar
  44. Wolters, H. J., 1978. Some aspects of role taking behaviour in captive family groups of the cottontop tamarin (Saguinus oedipus oedipus). In:Biology and Behaviour of Marmosets,H. Rothe,H. J. Wolters, &J. P. Hearn (eds.), Eigenverlag, Göttingen, FRG, pp. 259–278.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Japan Monkey Centre 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen Francis Ferrari
    • 1
  • Maria Aparecida Lopes Ferrari
    • 2
  1. 1.University College LondonUK
  2. 2.Universidade Federal de Minas GeraisBrasil

Personalised recommendations