, Volume 29, Issue 3, pp 395–404 | Cite as

Developmental changes of plasma alkaline phosphatase, calcium, and inorganic phosphorus in relation to the growth of bones in the Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata)

  • Akiko Takenaka
  • Shuniji Gotoh
  • Tsuyoshi Watanabe
  • Osamu Takenaka


The plasma levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), calcium, and inorganic phosphorus in the Japanese macaque were measured during its growing period. The plasma ALP level within two days after birth was 818±186 IU/1, and the level showed a temporary peak at about 2 months of age (2747±763 IU/1). The ALP level formed a plateau from 1 to 3 years of age, then decreased again and reached finally an adult level (211±71 IU/1). Sex differences were observed twice during the animal's lifetime, from 6 to 9 months of age and from 3 to 7 years of age. On integration of this complicated curve, a correlation was observed with the development of the length of the bones. The plasma levels of calcium and inorganic phosphorus which were high within two days after birth, reached adult levels at 3 months and 5 years of age, respectively.

Key Words

ALP Ca Development Japanese macaque 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Altshuler, H. L. &R. E. Stowell, 1972. Normal serum biochemical values ofCercopithecus aethiops, Cercocebus atys andPresbytis entellus Lab. Anim. Sci., 22: 692–704.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. , &R. T. Lowe, 1971. Normal serum biochemical values ofMacaca arctoides, Macaca fascicularis, andMacaca radiata.Lab. Anim. Sci., 21: 916–926.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Beland, M. F., P. K. Sehgal, &W. C. Peacock, 1979. Baseline blood chemistry determinations in the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus).Lab. Anim. Sci., 29: 195–199.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Clark, L. C. &E. I. Beck, 1950. Plasma alkaline phosphatase activity. I. Normative data for growing children.J. Pediat., 36: 335–341.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. de la Pena, A., C. Matthijssen, &J. W. Goldzieher, 1970. Normal values for blood constituents of the baboon (Papio species).Lab. Anim. Care, 20: 251–261.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Hack, C. A. &C. A. Gleiser, 1982. Hematologic and serum chemical reference values for adult and juvenile baboons (Papio sp.).Lab. Anim. Sci., 32: 502–505.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Hamada, Y., 1982. Longitudinal somatometrical study on the growth patterns of newborn Japanese monkeys.Primates, 23: 542–557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ikeda, J. &S. Hayama, 1963. Observation on the growth and development of Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata).Primates, 4(2): 90–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Iwamoto, M., 1971. Morphological studies ofMacaca fuscata (VI): Somatometry.Primates, 12: 151–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. , 1977. A somatometrical study of the Japanese monkey of deciduous tooth perid.J. Anthropol. Soc. Nippon, 85: 81–291.Google Scholar
  11. Kapeghian, J. C., M. J. Bush, &A. J. Verlangieri, 1984. Changes in selected serum biochemical and EKG values with age in cynomolgus macaques.J. Med. Primatol., 13: 283–288.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Kessiler, M. J. &R. G. Rawlins, 1983. The hemogram, serum biochemistry, and electrolyte profile of the free-ranging Cayo Santiago rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).Amer. J. Primatol., 4: 107–116.Google Scholar
  13. Matsubayashi, K. &K. Mochizuki, 1982. Growth of male reproductive organs with observation of their seasonal morphologic changes in the Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata).Jpn. J. Vet. Sci., 44: 891–902.Google Scholar
  14. Miki, K., T. Oda, H. Suzuki, S. Iino, &H. Niwa, 1977. Alkaline phosphatase isoenzyme in intestinal metaplasia of the stomach.Clin. Chim. Acta, 76: 79–88.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Nigi, H., 1975. Sexual maturity of male Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) in Shiga-A troop.Physiol. & Ecol. (Seiri Seitai), 16: 47–53.Google Scholar
  16. ----, 1982.Nihonzaru, Sei no Seiri (Japanese Monkey, Physiology of Sex). Dobustsusha. (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  17. ,T. Tiba, S. Yamamoto, Y. Floeschheim, &N. Ohsawa, 1980. Sexual maturation and seasonal change in reproductive phenomena of male Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) at Takasakiyama.Primates, 21: 230–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Oser, T., R. E. Lang, &E. E. Vogin, 1970. Blood values in stump-tailed macaques (Macaca arctoides) under laboratory conditions.Lab. Anim. Care, 20: 462–467.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Rao, G. N. &E. G. Shipley, 1970. Data on selected clinical blood chemistry tests of adult female rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).Lab. Anim. Care, 20: 226–231.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Turbyfill, C. L., M. B. Cramer, W. A. Dewes, &J. W. Huguley, 1970. Serum and cerebral spinal fluid chemistry values for the monkey (Macaca mulatta).Lab. Anim. Care, 20: 269–273.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Vogin, E. E. &F. Oser, 1971. Comparative blood values in several species of nonhuman primates.Lab. Anim. Sci., 21: 937–941.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Watanabe, T., 1975. Some features of the wild Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) of Shiga-A troop from viewpoint of somatometry.Physiol. & Ecol. (Seiri Seitai), 16: 55–63.Google Scholar
  23. Yoshida, T., K. Suzuki, F. Cho, &S. Honjo, 1986. Age-related changes of hematological and serum biochemical values in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) bred and reared using the indoor individually-caged system.Exp. Anim., 35: 329–338.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Japan Monkey Centre 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Akiko Takenaka
    • 1
  • Shuniji Gotoh
    • 1
  • Tsuyoshi Watanabe
    • 1
  • Osamu Takenaka
    • 1
  1. 1.Primate Research InstituteKyoto UniversityInuyama, AichiJapan

Personalised recommendations