, Volume 30, Issue 4, pp 581–587

Responses of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) to different conditions of mirror-image stimulation

  • James R. Anderson
  • Jean-Jacques Roeder
Research Report

DOI: 10.1007/BF02380884

Cite this article as:
Anderson, J.R. & Roeder, JJ. Primates (1989) 30: 581. doi:10.1007/BF02380884


Group-living brown capuchins were given mirror-image stimulation as follows: (1) mirror 1 m away; (2) mirror attached to the cage-mesh; (3) angled mirrors creating a deflected image; (4) small mirror in the cage; and (5) small, transportable mirrors. The subjects were initially interested in the mirrors in each condition, but they generally habituated to them over the course of repeated presentations. Control (non-reflective) objects were attended to less than mirrors. Facial expressions occurred mostly in Condition 2, lateral and vertical head movements in Condition 3, reaching behind the mirror in Condition 2, looking obliquely into the mirror in Conditions 4 and 5. Despite these diverse conditions of exposure to mirrors, lasting for a total of over three months, no behaviours suggesting self-recognition were seen in the monkeys.

Key Words

Cebus apella Mirrors Facial expressions Habituation 

Copyright information

© Japan Monkey Centre 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • James R. Anderson
    • 1
  • Jean-Jacques Roeder
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratoire de PsychophysiologieUniversité Louis PasteurStrasbourgFrance

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