Advertisement

Plant and Soil

, Volume 96, Issue 3, pp 317–325 | Cite as

Yield and composition of soybean seed as a function of potassium supply

  • P. W. G. Sale
  • L. C. Campbell
Article

Summary

A reduction in K supply to soybean plants to deficiency levels during both vegetative and reproductive development resulted in reductions not only in yield, but also in oil and K concentrations in the seed and a concomittant increase in seed protein concentration. Correlations between mean fruit yield and oil, protein and K concentrations, over a wide range of K regimes, were 0.97, −0.94 and 0.98, respectively. When K supply was increased well above the level necessary to produce maximum yields,i.e. luxury consumption, there was no significant change in K concentration in the seed, indicating a high degree of control in the movement of K to the developing seed under high K regimes. When the K supply to the plant was limiting, the rate of accumulation of oil and carbohydrate fractions, but not of seed protein, declined during the latter part of podfilling. This resulted in a fall in the C/N ratio in the non-structural seed components during this part of seed development. Depriving plants of K only during seed development had no effect on seed composition or yield, whereas resupplying K to deficient plants after anthesis resulted in almost the same seed composition and yield as that which occurred with control plants. Possible mechanisms whereby K deficiency influences soybean seed composition and yield are discussed in terms of movement of carbohydrate and nitrogen to the seed. We suggest that potassium-deficient soils are likely to produce crops with low yields and low seed oil levels; the crop may respond to K fertilizers as late as anthesis.

Key words

Glycine max (L.) Merr. Oil percentage Potassium Protein percentages Seed yield Soybean 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Beaton J D 1980 Response to potassium: yield and economics.In Potassium for Agriculture. Potash and Phosphate Institute, Atlanta, pp 67–108.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Collins F I, Alexander D E, Rodgers R C and Silvela S 1967 Analysis of oil content of soybeans by wide-line NMR. J. Am. Oil Chemists Soc. 44, 708–710.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cooper R B, Blaser R E and Brown R H 1967 Potassium nutrition effects on net photosynthesis and morphology on alfalfa. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. Proc. 31, 231–235.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dubois M, Gilles K A, Hamilton J K, Rebens P A and Smith F 1956 Colorimetric method for determination of sugars and related substances. Anal. Chem. 28, 350–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Epstein E 1972 Mineral nutrition of plants: Principles and Perspectives. John Wiley and Sons, New York, 412 p.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Francis C A 1970 Effective daylengths for the study of photoperiod sensitive reactions in plants. Agron. J. 62, 790–792.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Haeder H E, Mengel K and Forster H 1973 The effect of potassium on translocation of photosynthetic and yield patterns of potato plants. J. Sci. Fd. Agric. 24, 1479–1487.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hartt C E 1970 Effect of potassium deficiency upon translocation of14C in detached blades of sugarcane. Plant Physiol. 45, 183–187.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hanson W D, Leffel R C and Howell R W 1961 Genetic analysis of energy production in the soybean. Crop Sci. 1, 121–126.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Heenan D P and Campbell L C 1980 Growth, yield components and seed composition of two soybean cultivars as affected by manganese supply. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 31, 471–476.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Koch K and Mengel K 1974 The influence of the level of K supply to young tobacco plants on short-term uptake and utilization of nitrate-N. J. Sci. Fd. Agric. 25, 465–471.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Koch K and Mengel K 1977 Effect of K and N utilization of spring wheat during grain protein formation. Agron. J. 69, 477–480.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Krober O A and Gibbons S J 1962 Non protein nitrogen in soybeans. Agric. Food Chem. 10, 57–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Laüchli A and Pflüger R 1979 Potassium transport through plant cell membranes and metabolic role of potassium in plants.In Potash Research—Review and Trends. Proc 11th Congress of Int. Potash Institute, 1979, pp. 111–163.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    McCready R M, Gugolz J, Silvera V and Owens H S 1950 Determination of starch and amylose in vegetables. Anal. Chem. 22, 1156–1158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Mengel K and Haeder H 1977 Effect of potassium supply on the rate of phloem sap exudation and the composition of phloem sap ofRicinus communis. Plant Physiol. 59, 282–284.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Richards F J 1932 Physiolocal studies in plant nutrition. III. Further studies of the effect of potash deficiency on the rate of respiration in leaves of barley. Ann. Bot. 46, 367–388.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sale P W G 1981 Seed composition in soybeans (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) with reference to mineral nutrition. Ph. D. thesis, Sydney University.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sale P W G and Campbell L C 1980 Changes in physical characteristics and composition of soybean seed during crop development. Field crops Res. 3, 146–155.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Sale P W G and Campbell L C 1980 Patterns of mineral nutrient accumulation in soybean seed. Field Crops Res. 3, 157–163.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Streeter J G 1979 Allantoin and allantoic acid in tissues and stem exudate from field-grown soybean plants. Plant Physiol. 63, 478–480.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Stace H C T, Hubble G D, Brewer R, Northcote K H, Sleeman J R, Mulcahy M J and Hallsworth E G 1968 A Handbook of Australian Soils. Rellim Technical Publications Glenside, S. Aust. 435 p.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Terry N and Ulrich A 1973 Effects of potassium deficiency on the photosynthesis and respiration of leaves of sugar beet. Plant Physiol. 51, 783–786.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Wallingford W 1980 Functions of potassium in plants.In Potassium in Agriculture. Potash and Phosphate Institute, Atlanta, pp. 10–27.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wolf D D, Kimbrough L and Blaser R E 1977 Photosynthetic efficiency on alfalfa with increasing potassium nutrition. Crop Sci. 16, 292–294.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wyn Jones R G, Brady C J and Speirs J 1979 Ionic and osmotic relations in plant cells.In Recent Advances in the Biochemistry of Cerels. Eds. D L Laidman and R G Wyn Jones. pp. 63–103. Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Yoshida S, Forno D, Cock J H and Gomez K A 1972 Laboratory manual for physiolgical studies of rice, pp. 11–12. Int. Rice. Res. Institute, Los Banos, Philippines.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ziegler H 1975 Nature of transported substances.In Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology, New Series, Volume 1. Eds. M H Zimmerman and T A Milburn, pp. 59–100.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Martinus Nijhoff Publishers 1986

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. W. G. Sale
    • 1
  • L. C. Campbell
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Agronomy and Horticultural ScienceUniversity of SydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations