Tool-using and -making behavior in wild chimpanzees at Bossou, Guinea
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The behavior of wild chimpanzees at Bossou, Guinea, was studied from November 1976 to May 1977 recognizing each chimpanzee without artificial feeding. During the study period some tool-using and tool-making behavior was observed, as follows: (1) Although water drinking using a “leaf-sponge” was not seen, that using a “leaf-spoon” was observed for taking water from the hollow of a tree. (2) “Termite fishing” was not seen in this group although there were many termite hills in the moving range of the chimpanzees. They dug termites from the hollow of a tree by pounding with a small stick. Similar use of a stick was made for digging up the resin from a tree. (3) “Aimed throwing” was frequently observed in adult males for attacking an observer, and in adolescents and juveniles as mischief against an observer or for their own play. (4) “Nut cracking” with a pair of stones was seen for removing the ovule from palm-seeds. Particular stones were repeatedly used by many chimpanzees for a long period. (5) “Branch hauling” represented difficult work. Patient and inventive manufacture of proper sticks was necessary for capturing branches which they were unable to reach normally.
Local variations in the tool-using patterns and manufacturing ability of chimpanzees are discussed.
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