Rhizobitoxine: A phytotoxin of unknown function which is commonly produced by bradyrhizobia
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Fifty-six percent of 93 strains ofBradyrhizobium japonicum andBradyrhizobium sp. (various hosts) from diverse geographical areas were found to produce a chlorosis-inducing toxin. Toxin production was common among bradyrhizobia originating from the USA, Africa, Central America, and South America.
Toxin produced by West African strains was compared with rhizobitoxine by cation exchange chromatography, paper chromatography, and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) bioassay. The comparison suggested that the chlorosis-inducing toxin produced by West African bradyrhizobia is rhizobitoxine.
Purified toxin from a West AfricanBradyrhizobium sp. (Vigna) strain inhibited the growth ofBacillus subtilis on minimal medium. The growth inhibition was reduced by addition of yeast-extract or casamino acids but not by any of 21 individual amino acids, including methionine. The same toxin did not inhibit the growth of 14 Bradyrhizobium strains, including eight strains that did not produce toxin.
Mixed inoculum experiments revealed that a toxin-producing West African strain could not assist toxin non-producingB. japonicum strains in nodulating non-nodulating (rj1 rj1) soybeans.
Key wordsBradyrhizobium japonicum Bradyrhizobium sp. Chlorosis-inducing toxinGlycine max Non-nodulating (rj1 rj1) soybean Rhizobitoxine
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