, Volume 17, Issue 3, pp 297–317 | Cite as

The parasitoid complex of the citrus psyllaTrioza erytreae (Del Guercio) [Homoptera: Psyllidae]

  • J. R. Mc Daniel
  • V. C. Moran


Associated with the citrus psylla,Trioza erytreae (Del Guercio), in Salisbury, Rhodesia, are two primary parasitoids and 13 secondary and tertiary hyperparasitoids. One of the primary parasitoidsTetrastichus? radiatus remains external to the psyllid host whereas the other primary,Psyllaephagus pulvinatus, is an internal parasitoid. The major secondary hyperparasitoidAphidencyrtus cassatus, which was recorded in large numbers, attacks both primary parasitoids.

Accounts are given of the biology of the two primary parasitoids and ofA. cassatus. The other hyperparasites in the complex are numerically unimportant and summaries of their biology are contained in a table.

A diagram is given to illustrate the interrelationships of the parasitoids in the citrus psylla complex.

It is concluded that, apart from phenological effects on the insects and host plant, the two primary parasitoids have considerable impact in controlling numbers of their host,T. erytreae, and that the secondary parasitoidA. cassatus through its attacks on the primary parasitoids is also of major importance in determining population levels achieved by the citrus psylla.

Some characteristics of the parasitoids in the complex are discussed which might explain the high population levels of citrus psylla achieved in the Salisbury area. Several research avenues exist which would clarify the feasibility of biological control procedures againstT. erytreae.


Host Plant Biological Control Population Level Control Procedure Considerable Impact 
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Deux parasites primaires et treize parasites secondaires et tertiaires sont associés au Psylle des Citrus,Trioza erytreae (Del Guercio) à Salisbury, Rhodésie. L’un des parasites primairesTetrastichus? radiatus demeure extérieur au psyllehôte tandis que l’autre,Psyllaephagus pulvinatus est parasite interne. Le plus important hyperparasite secondaire,Aphidencyrtus cassatus, qui a été trouvé en grand nombre, s’attaque aux deux parasites primaires.

Des données sont fournies sur la biologie des deux parasites primaires et deA. cassatus. Les autres hyperparasites sont numériquement peu importants et le tableau 2 résume leur biologie. La figure 1 illustre les interrelations entre les divers parasites du complexe associé au Psylle des Citrus.

On conclut que, mis à part les effets phénologiques sur les insectes et la plante-hôte, les deux parasites primaires ont une influence considérable dans le contrôle de leur hôte,T. erytreae, et que le parasite secondaireA. cassatus, du fait qu’il s’attaque aux parasites primaires, est également un facteur important dans le déterminisme des niveaux de population atteints par le Psylle des Citrus.

Certaines caractéristiques des parasites du complexe étudié sont discutées, car elles peuvent expliquer les niveaux élevés de population du psylle enregistrés dans la région de Salisbury. Il y a plusieurs directions de recherches pour mettre en évidence la possibilité de méthodes de lutte biologique contreT. erytreae.


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Copyright information

© Le François 1972

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. R. Mc Daniel
    • 1
  • V. C. Moran
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Zoology & EntomologyRhodes UniversityGrahamstownSouth Africa

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