Advertisement

Plant and Soil

, Volume 107, Issue 2, pp 183–188 | Cite as

The15N methodology in estimating N2 fixation by vetch and pea grown in pure stand or in mixtures with oat

  • I. Papastylianou
Article

Abstract

Cereal-legume mixtures are frequently the best management decision for forage production instead of growing crops in pure stands. Nitrogen fertilization of cereal-legume mixtures is questionable since combined nitrogen could depress N2 fixation by legumes. The objectives of this study were (1) to examine the effect of N fertilization on N2 fixation by vetch and field peas in pure and in mixed stands with oats, and (2) to examine if there is any transfer of N from legumes to associated cereals. The field experiment was conducted for two growing seasons. The treatments were pure stands of vetch, pea and oats, and the mixtures of the two legumes with oats at the seeding ratios 90:10 and 75:25, fertilized with labelled15N at the rates of 15 and 90 kg N ha−1.

Nitrogen fertilization of 90 kg N ha−1 suppressed N2 fixation in both legumes grown in pure and in mixed stands. Crops grown in mixtures in many instances had lower atom %15N excess. Whether this was due to high N2 fixation in the case of legume and transfer in the case of oat or the differences were due to practical problems of the15N technique is not clearly shown by the results, so based on the literature the aspect is discussed as well as the precautions which should be considered in using the15N technique in such studies.

Key words

fertilizer N legume-cereal mixtures 15N, N2 fixation N transfer pea vetch 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allos H F and Bartholomew W V 1959 Replacement of symbiotic fixation by available nitrogen. Soil Sci. 87, 61–66.Google Scholar
  2. Broadbent F E, Nakashima T and Chang Grace Y 1982 Estimation of nitrogen fixation by isotope dilution in field and greenhouse experiments. Agron. J. 74, 625–628.Google Scholar
  3. Chapman S R and Carter L P 1976 Crop Production Principles and Practices. W H Freeman and Co., San Francisco, 512 p.Google Scholar
  4. Dommergues Y R 1978 The plan-microorganism system. p. 1–37. Interactions Between Non-Pathogenic Soil Microorganisms and Plants. Eds. Y R Dommergues and S V Krupa. Elsevier Sci. Publ. Co. New York.Google Scholar
  5. Gibson A H 1971 Factors in the physical and biological environment affecting nodulation and nitrogen fixation by legumes. Plant and Soil, Spec. Vol. 139–152.Google Scholar
  6. Goodman P J and Collison M 1986 Effect of three clover varieties on growth15N uptake and fixation by ryegrass/white clover mixtures at three sites in Wales. Grass Forage Sci. 41, 191–198.Google Scholar
  7. Hadjichristodoulou A 1973 Production of forage cereals, legumes and their mixtures under rainfed conditions in Cyprus. Technical Bulletin No. 14, 18 pp. Cyprus Agricultural Research Institute, Nicosia.Google Scholar
  8. Hardarson G, Zapata F and Danso S K A 1984 Effect of plant genotype and nitrogen fertilizer on symbiotic nitrogen fixation by soybean cultivars. Plant and Soil 82, 397–405.Google Scholar
  9. Hauck R D 1973. Nitrogen tracers in nitrogen cycle studies — past use and future needs. J. Environ. Qual. 2, 317–327.Google Scholar
  10. Legg J O and Sloger C 1976 A tracer method for determining symbiotic nitrogen-fixation in field studies.In Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Stable Isotopes. Eds. E R Klein and P P Klein, pp 661–666. Oak Brook, Illinois.Google Scholar
  11. Miller Jr. Jc., Scott J S, Zary K W and O’Hair S K 1982. The influence of available nitrate levels on nitrogen fixation in three cultivars of cowpea. Agron. J. 74, 14–18.Google Scholar
  12. Morris, D R, Weaver R W, Smith G R and Rouquette F M 1986 Competition for nitrogen-15 depleted ammonium nitrate between arrowleaf clover and annual ryegrass sown into bermudagrass sod. Agron. J. 78, 1023–1030.Google Scholar
  13. Osman A E and Nersoyan N 1986 Effect of the proportion of species on the yield and quality of forage mixtures, and on the yield of barley in the following year. Expl. Agric. 22, 345–351.Google Scholar
  14. Osman A E and Osman A M 1982 Performance of mixtures of cereal and legume forages under irrigation in the Sudan. J. Agric. Sci. Camb. 98, 17–21.Google Scholar
  15. Papastylianou I 1987 Amount of nitrogen fixed by forage, pasture and grain legumes in Cyprus, estimated by the A-value and a modified difference method. Plant and Soil 104, 23–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Papastylianou I and Samios Th 1987 Comparison of rotation in which barley for grain follows woollypod vetch or forage barley for grain follows woollypod vetch or forage barley. J. Agric. Sci. Camb. 108, 609–615.Google Scholar
  17. Postgate J R 1982 The Fundamentals of Nitrogen Fixation. 1st ed. Cambridge University Press, New York.Google Scholar
  18. Rennie R J 1979 Comparison of15N-aided methods for determining symbiotic dinitrogen fixation. Rev. Ecol. Biol. Sol. 16, 455–463.Google Scholar
  19. Trenbarth B R 1974 Biomass production of mixtures. Adv. Agron. 26, 177–210.Google Scholar
  20. Vallis I, Henzel E F and Evans T R 1977 Uptake of soil nitrogen by legumes in mixed swards. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 28, 413–425.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Witty J F 1983 Estimating N2-fixation in the field using15N-labelled fertilizer, some problems and solutions. Soil. Biol. Biochem. 15, 631–639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Witty J F and Ritz K 1984 Slow-release15N fertilizer formulations to measure N2-fixation by isotope dilution. Soil Biol. Biochem. 16, 657–661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • I. Papastylianou
    • 1
  1. 1.Agricultural Research InstituteNicosiaCyprus

Personalised recommendations