Annals of Biomedical Engineering

, Volume 15, Issue 5, pp 419–426 | Cite as

Development of a platinized platinum/iridium electrode for use in vitro

  • Kenneth R. Cote
  • Richard C. Gill


Silver/silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) electrodes possess excellent electrical properties for measuring the electrical activity of gastrointestinal smooth muscle but exert toxic effects on this tissue in vitro. We thus developed a platinum electrode for use in vitro, the construction of these electrodes relying upon the formation of a glass-platinum/iridium seal. The platinum/iridium (Pt/Ir) electrodes were platinized using a current density of 0.45 mA mm−2. The electrode impedance at 0.01 Hz showed a minimum with platinization current-time products greater than 500 mA s mm−2. However, deposits in excess of 600 mA s mm−2 were readily removed by mechanical abrasion and proved unsatisfactory. Optimal platinization was obtained with a deposit of platinum-black corresponding to a current-time product of 550 mA s mm−2. Optimally-platinized electrodes (geometric surface area 0.11 mm2) had a stable and reproducible potential with a drift of less than 1 μV min−1 and a lower impedance than optimally chlorided silver electrodes (geometric surface area 0.46 mm2) at frequencies higher than 0.25 Hz. The platinized Pt/Ir electrodes were used to record the electrical activity of gastrointestinal smooth muscle in vitro.


Platinum/iridium electrodes Biological electrodes Platinization 


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Copyright information

© Pergamon Journals Ltd 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kenneth R. Cote
    • 1
  • Richard C. Gill
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryUniversity of AlbertaEdmontonCanada

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